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Exchange Rate Undervaluation and Growth in China

DEVELOPMENT - 27. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

The widely held belief that China’s undervalued exchange rate has been crucial to its rapid industrialization and economic growth over the last four decades is critically qualified and nuanced. In any case, renminbi (RMB) appreciation, rising wages with exhaustion of its labour surplus, growing domestic demand and slowing international trade and growth following the 2008 global financial crisis have reduced China’s economic growth.

The Soldier, The Terrorist, and The Woman: A Gendered Analysis of Enforced Displacement in Northwestern Pakistan Post 2014

DEVELOPMENT - 27. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

After the enforced displacement of around 1.7 million civilians from Federally Administered Tribal Areas in 2014, as a result of Pakistan’s military operation ‘Zarb-e-Azb’ against terrorist insurgencies located in the said area, the military were celebrated, while issues of enforced displacement were relegated to the backseat, with rudimentary charitable actions executed to eulogize the sacrifice of the Pashtuns, already existing on the periphery. This article focuses on Pashtun women who can be described as the marginalized of the marginalized, existing outside the realm of authority and politics, wholly ignored by the state and the military with respect to their absence in repatriation policies and unthought of by the metropolitan nationals and self-proclaimed intellectuals.

Deconstructing Transgender Identities in Pakistan, India, and Iran in Colonial and Post-colonial Context

DEVELOPMENT - 24. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

This article examines rights-based mobilization amongst the transgender community in Pakistan, India, and Iran. It tackles the dominant discourse of Human Rights, which has always found its geographic epistemic in the Global North. Thus, it argues that understanding the rights of transgender people in a non-Western world requires tracing the etymological history of such rights language, which is embedded within a greater vernacular knowledge of rights influenced by its colonial past.

Window on the World

DEVELOPMENT - 24. Januar 2020 - 0:00

After one decade of G20 summitry: What future of global club governance in turbulent times?

DIE Blog - 23. Januar 2020 - 14:00

By ASchrumm – CIGI Communications Dept, CC BY-SA 3.0

A decade ago the world was struggling with the repercussions of the global financial crisis in 2007 and 2008 that emerged in the interconnected transatlantic financial system. At this critical moment in time, the G20 was elevated from a meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors to the level of heads of states and government. By including a number of rising as well as middle powers non G7 countries the first G20 summit in Washington in November 2008 made clear that current cross-border challenges cannot anymore be dealt with by the old powers of the traditional establishment. At the subsequent summits in London (April 2009) and Pittsburgh (September 2009) the G20 displayed an astonishing level of international cooperation by agreeing on wide-ranging commitments that helped to calm down international financial markets and strengthen the crisis response of international financial institutions. These early initiatives led some optimistic observers to conclude that the system worked.

Despite this praise for the G20, since the first days of the G20 critics argue that the G20 lacks legitimacy due to the arbitrariness of the selection of its members, the rivalry with the United Nations’ system and the lack of accountability of the G20 vis-à-vis its own societies and non-members. A decade after its foundation more and more experts question whether the G20 is able to deal with another major crisis which today is not caused by economic but political turbulences. The backlash against rules-based multilateralism and international cooperation has also infected the G20 since the 2017 Hamburg summit. Fundamental differences among the leaders sitting at the top table have resulted in decisions to water down previous commitments, such as the anti-protectionism pledge, or the go it alone approach of the US on climate policy. In addition, the G20 is facing a societal backlash that is questioning its basic premise of existence, i.e. being able to effectively tackle global problems.

In order to analyse the evolution of the G20 during the past decade, including its mechanisms of cooperation and outreach, as well as the conditions for effective global problem solving we have brought together a group of scholars from the global South and North in a Special Issue on “A decade of G20 summitry: Assessing the benefits, limitations and future of global club governance in turbulent times”.

In the following, we would like to highlight three broad lines of argument that emerge from the contributions of the Special Issue informing future research on global club governance.

First, in order to analyse the ability of the G20 to contribute to global problem solving it is necessary to appreciate its changing institutional set-up and its position within the broader global governance system. While the early days of the scholarly debate on the G20 evolved around a discussion whether the G20 should focus on crisis prevention or should take over the role of a global steering committee. The contributions of our Special Issue make clear that the G20 has become a fragmented and decentralised global governance hub that interacts with various international organisations and transnational actors from G20 and non-G20 countries. These discussions underline that the G20’s contribution today do not only relate to actual policy output but also in terms of its contribution to maintaining international as well as transnational cooperation in an era of increasingly contested multilateralism.

Second, the effectiveness of the G20 depends on the presidency’s ability to build political coalitions among like-minded countries and gather technical support from international organisations. Another, often overlooked factor, factor for successful G20 initiatives is the underlying working group structure that brings mid-level officials together in some cases also involving the G20’s engagement groups. Nonetheless, it is being argued that the G20 lacks effectiveness in dealing with major global challenges such as addressing climate change. The discussion on how to make the G20 more effective, however, is ongoing. While some argue that the G20 needs to increase its outcome orientation, in contrast to being primarily a platform for dialogue, by increased informality enabling “fireside chats” among the leaders. Others argue that the G20 needs to become more institutionalised by including decision-making procedures beyond consensus, transparency guidelines and more formalised consultation processes for societal stakeholders.

Third, the elevation of the G20 to the level of heads of state and government was a major step in integrating rising as well as middle-powers in the global governance system. How those countries, both from a state and societal perspective, relate to the G20 necessitates further research. In his context it is interesting to note that societies of old and new powers both put a strong emphasis on output legitimacy. Significantly, however, when it comes to input legitimacy, societal actors from rising powers put a stronger emphasis on this dimension and also more frequently refer to the challenges of poorer developing countries. Another interesting variation relates to the status seeking policies of the new G20 powers. When it comes to promoting South-South cooperation some countries such as Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa and Mexico prioritise specific types of multilateral aid channels. Other countries such as China, India, Russia and Turkey are more likely to adopt other types of multilateral aid and bilateral channels. What stands out among all these countries is an effort to balance their own individual interests and their connections with the developing world beyond the G20.

Der Beitrag After one decade of G20 summitry: What future of global club governance in turbulent times? erschien zuerst auf International Development Blog.

Religious Identity and Politics of Citizenship in South Asia: A Reflection on Refugees and Migrants in India

DEVELOPMENT - 21. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

The article addresses the post-secular shift in the global politics of citizenship and migration where secular and inclusive ideals are being threatened by emerging right-wing leadership, especially in the Indian subcontinent. It also highlights the politicization of migration and citizenship through ethnic and nationalistic discourses, illustrating examples of refugees and migrants in India. It also investigates the nexus between the controversial Citizenship Amendment Act 2019 and the divisive National Register of Citizens.

Unwanted Identities: The ‘Religion Line’ and Global Islamophobia

DEVELOPMENT - 21. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

The article discusses why Islamophobia constitutes a major racist discourse today and illustrates how we can make sense of this global relevance of Islamophobia. The author explains the centrality of the ‘religion line’ in the current global world system by drawing on the post-Cold War era. Through a decolonial reading of Islamophobia, three empirical cases are chosen to discuss differences and commonalities between various forms of Islamophobia in the Xingjiang/China, Egypt, and the USA exploring the effects of this global phenomenon on the discursive construction of identities, citizenship rights, and governance.

Invisibles: An Ethnography About Identity, Rights and Citizenship in the Trajectories of Brazilians Adults Without Papers

DEVELOPMENT - 17. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

This article synthesizes some results of the author’s Ph.D. thesis, an ethnography about Brazilian adults who lived without papers until the moment they sought their birth certificates, which were being offered as a free public service in downtown Rio de Janeiro. In a dialogue with the concept of the ‘margins of the state’ (Das and Poole in Anthropology in the margins of the state, School of American Research, New Mexico, 2004), the article shows how undocumented people disregard themselves as subjects and analyzes the birth certificate as an institutional rite (Bourdieu in A economia das trocas linguísticas, Edusp, São Paulo, 1996), demonstrating that the search for papers is also for rights and citizenship.

sharetopia-Tauschladen „TauschKliMOTTE“ in Altona-Nord eröffnet

#Nachhaltigkeit in #Hamburg - 15. Januar 2020 - 9:00
Mit ihrem Motto „tauschen statt wegwerfen/neu kaufen“ vereint die TauschKliMOTTE Menschen, die Ressourcen und CO2 einsparen und das Klima schützen wollen. So entsteht ein Raum für Austausch und Vernetzung. „Währung“ sind die „fairsharies“, die gutgeschrieben werden und über die getauscht [...]

Closing the Gap Between Legal and Social Citizenship for Roma People

DEVELOPMENT - 15. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

While Roma people are most often legal citizens in their countries, long-term persecution and discrimination has affected their social citizenship: their ability to fully participate as active citizens, their capacity to pursue high-status professions and their choices and rights. This essay integrates personal reflections with a historical and contemporary overview of citizenship rights for Roma, makes recommendations for reducing the gap between their legal and social citizenship, and explores the possibility to redefine the Roma condition in the twenty-first century.

Enforcing Law and Norms for Good Citizens: One View of China’s Social Credit System Project

DEVELOPMENT - 15. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

Despite widespread mischaracterization and misconception about its policy objective and content, China’s social credit system project at this point consists primarily of a set of new approaches to enforcing conduct norms that already exist in the country’s multi-layered legal and extralegal norm systems. This essay explains such enforcement logic inherent in the project’s application to regulating behaviour of individual citizens. It also argues that the project’s implementation of its envisioned new enforcement paradigm is foremost challenged by design difficulties.

Felwine Sarr: "#Afrotopia" - Schluss mit westlichen Kriterien!

Weblinks - 14. Januar 2020 - 0:40

Comments:

  • Der senegalesische Ökonom Felwine Sarr entwirft im Sachbuch "Afrotopia" seine Vision für den Kontinent: Er funktioniere anders als westliche Kulturen. Man spürt seinen Zorn bei der Lektüre – und weiß, das kommende Afrika ist nahe. - Karsten Weitzenegger

Tags: afrika, entwicklung, globales_lernen, Senegal, afrikanisch, afrikapolitk

by: Karsten Weitzenegger

The Haunting Specter of Hindu Ethnonationalist-Neocolonial Development in the Indian Occupied Kashmir

DEVELOPMENT - 14. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

The Indian government says that the removal of Kashmir’s autonomy is for development, but it should be seen as embedded in a structure of neocolonialism based on fundamentalist Hindu ethnonationalism or Hindutva and fueled by neoliberalism in which even Muslims living in India are cast as invaders and foreigners. Kashmiri, doubly marked as the Other: first as Muslims and second as seekers of self-determination, fear their loss of territorial sovereignty will pave way for settler colonialism, dispossession of indigenous people and rampant exploitation of resources resulting in neocolonial maldevelopment.

Finance’s New Avatar

DEVELOPMENT - 14. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

The transformation of finance in recent decades has involved new property rights creating novel financial assets and transnational financial relations. Ascendant financialization, associated with financial globalization, has facilitated the capture of financial rents from changes in the prices of securities, held directly or indirectly, and often financed through repo markets. Commercial banks increasingly serve securities and derivative markets, as shadow banking has grown in significance, accelerating financial wealth concentration.

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