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Investment Facilitation – A New Governance Approach to Promote Foreign Direct Investment for Sustainable Development

DIE Blog - 17. April 2019 - 16:07

Photo by WTO/Flickr (altered) https://www.flickr.com/photos/world_trade_organization/38338987184/in/album-72157690815449785/

In order to reach the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), enormous amounts of investments are needed in areas like health, education, infrastructure, and the adaptation to climate change. To harness the advantages of foreign direct investment (FDI), it is critical that governments have policies and regulations in place that do not only help to attract and retain FDI but also enhance its contribution to sustainable development. In this context, discussions about the establishment of an international framework for investment facilitation have intensified in recent years.

What’s new about investment facilitation?

Put simply, investment facilitation is about creating a predictable, transparent and efficient investment environment for foreign and domestic investors. Therefore, changes need to take place primarily on the national level. For decades, international organizations and bilateral donors have been supporting developing countries in implementing investment policy reforms. Many of the policy prescriptions are well-known, too, so what’s new about the discussion on investment facilitation?

As we argue in a recent paper, the new aspect is that a group of developing and emerging countries are driving a policy process aiming at establishing an international framework for investment facilitation.

International rules for investment facilitation are rare. International Investment Agreements (IIAs), formulated and promoted mainly by developed countries, have been the backbone of the investment regime for the past 60 years and typically do not cover provisions that aim at facilitating investments. Instead, they rely on rules on better market access and higher investment protection, backed up by investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS), to promote FDI. Academic research about the effects of IIAs on FDI is inconclusive.

IIAs are typically unbalanced, as they impose binding and enforceable rules on host states while demanding little to no responsibilities from foreign investors. In contrast, non-compliance or misconduct on the side of the host country can become excessively costly. To date, more than a thousand ISDS cases have been filed against host states, most often by investors from developed countries. These cases can be costly for host states. For example, Venezuela had to pay 1.2 billion USD to Crystallex, a Canadian corporation engaged in gold mining and exploration.

A few countries, however, have departed from the traditions of the international investment regime as laid down in the treaties designed by developed countries. Brazil’s Cooperation and Investment Facilitation Agreements (CIFAs) illustrate a novel approach to international investment rule-making. As their name suggests, CIFAs focus on investment facilitating measures. They promote continued communication between host state and investor (e.g. by the establishment of contact points and ombudspersons), dispute prevention mechanisms, and state-to-state arbitration as a last resort. Brazil’s CIFAs, therefore, focus more on process and working on the basis of mutual trust in contrast to the policy prescriptions favoured by developed countries’ IIAs.

Structured Discussions in the WTO

The interesting aspect is that countries like Brazil, but also China and other emerging countries such as Columbia, are advancing discussions on investment facilitation within the WTO. To trade and investment watchers this is an astonishing development, as international investment rule-making in the past has been promoted by developed countries – for example, in the context of the negotiations on a Multilateral Investment Agreement (MAI) in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) during the 1990s – while developing countries have ever fiercely opposed such initiatives. Remember 2003 when developing countries walked out of the room at the WTO ministerial conference in Cancun in protest against the so called Singapore Issues that included investment?

Times have changed! In the run-up to the WTO Ministerial Conference in Buenos Aires in December 2017, a handful of mainly middle-income countries put forward proposals on investment facilitation. Although the Ministerial Conference in Buenos Aires failed to reach a consensus, a group of 70 WTO members, including both developed and developing countries, signed a Joint Ministerial Statement calling for the start of “structured discussions with the aim of developing a multilateral framework on investment facilitation”.

 

Inclusive Approach

Among the 70 signatories of the Joint Ministerial Statement, 60% represent high income countries, 33% are middle income countries, and 7% are low income countries (see map). Together they account for 62% of the global inward FDI stock and 67% of the global outward FDI stock. However, only five African countries have signed the Joint Ministerial Statement. Other important non-participants from the developing world are India, Turkey, South Africa, and the South East Asian economies Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Philippines. Overall, the US constitutes the largest non-participant accounting for 24% of the inward and outward FDI. It is most striking, however, that the bulk of non-signatories are less and least developed countries. Paradoxically, those are the countries that could benefit the most from an international investment facilitation framework.

As the structured discussion within the WTO are well under way since March 2018 and may lead to proper negotiations in the near future, it is pivotal to put the discussions on a broader footing and get more developing countries on board. Many developing countries still fear that developed countries may try to put controversial issues like market access, investment protection and ISDS back on the agenda. They also fear that an international framework may limit their policy space and strain their administrative capacities needed to negotiate and implement international rules on investment facilitation. Against this background, it is critical that emerging countries ensure the international discussions stay focused on investment facilitation and enhance the contribution of an international investment facilitation framework to sustainable development.

Der Beitrag Investment Facilitation – A New Governance Approach to Promote Foreign Direct Investment for Sustainable Development erschien zuerst auf International Development Blog.

Jahresbericht 2017-2018: Brücken bauen zwischen Theorie und Praxis

DIE - 17. April 2019 - 14:09
Die wegweisenden Beschlüsse des Jahres 2015 in Form des Pariser Klimaabkommens und der Agenda 2030 für nachhaltige Entwicklung scheinen bereits lange zurückzuliegen. Sie sind jedoch aktueller denn je. Politische Umbrüche haben zu wachsenden Hindernissen für internationale Zusammenarbeit im Rahmen einer multilateralen Ordnung geführt. 2015 erscheint heute weniger als Aufbruch denn als vorläufiger Höhepunkt dessen, was an internationaler Verständigung und Kooperation möglich ist. Deutschland und viele andere europäische Nationen treten für eine Stabilisierung und Weiterentwicklung des Multilateralismus ein. So hat der französische Präsident Emmanuel Macron in seiner Rede vor den Vereinten Nationen im September 2018 eine tiefe Krise der Wirksamkeit und der Prinzipien der gegenwärtigen liberalen Weltordnung diagnostiziert. Diese Weltordnung sei daran gescheitert, ihre ökonomischen und klimapolitischen Aufgaben zu bewältigen. Der Sicherheitsrat selbst stehe insgesamt nicht mehr hinter den fundamentalen Aufgaben der Vereinten Nationen, nämlich den universellen Menschenrechten und einer globalen Friedensordnung zu dienen. Vor dem Hintergrund der neuen Herausforderungen für den Multilateralismus, gibt der Jahresbericht 2017/18 einen Einblick in ausgewählte Forschungsarbeiten und Themenfelder des DIE. Im Fokus stehen dabei unter anderem das internationale Engagement um den Klimaschutz, eine verstärkte Kooperation mit Afrika sowie die lokale, regionale und internationale Vernetzung des DIEs mit Forschungspartnern und politischen Entscheidungsträgern.
Kategorien: Ticker

State of emergency: UN convenes Financing Forum while a new wave of debt crises threatens to derail sustainable development

Global Policy Watch - 17. April 2019 - 13:12

By Bodo Ellmers and Tove Ryding
This blog was first published by Eurodad here.

This week, governments will meet at the United Nations in New York for the Financing for Development Forum, and the challenge is very clear. Too little progress has been made towards achieving the UN’s sustainable development goals (SDGs), which to a large extent is the consequence of lacking finance. The 2015 Addis Ababa Action Agenda, a UN framework adopted at the same time as the SDGs, which is supposed to ensure money flows toward development and the achievement of the SDGs, is not fulfilling its objective.

Political differences at the Addis Summit meant that fundamental institutions, such as a multilateral debt workout mechanism to prevent and resolve debt crises, could not be agreed upon. Developing countries have repeatedly called for developed countries to engage in a negotiation about setting up such a mechanism. It would fill a gaping hole in the international financial architecture, by providing an effective insolvency framework for states. So far, developed countries have refused to negotiate about this, causing it to become a highly pressing issue.

A task force of international agencies, including the UN. , World Bank and IMF have just released a new Financing for Sustainable Development Report, which highlights that a new wave of debt crises has begun to strike. 40% of low income countries have severe debt problems, and also in richer countries, private and public debt levels are soaring. Consequently, global debt levels have reached new record highs.

The lack of political ambition at the Addis Summit is co-responsible for the problem. During the Summit, developing countries pushed for an intergovernmental tax agency to be set up under the UN, to address illicit financial flows and international tax dodging. Global solutions to these problems could have boosted the available levels of development finance significantly. For example, it is estimated that governments lose around US$500 billion in revenue every year, when multinational corporations use international loopholes to avoid taxes.

Another outstanding issue is the fulfilment of developed countries’ commitments to provide development aid to the world’s poorest. Just last week, preliminary figures showed that the level of development aid is dropping again, with the poorest countries being hardest hit. Furthermore, donor countries are increasingly reluctant to provide aid as grants, and using scarce aid resources for ‘blending’, which means subsidising private loans with aid, and thereby imposing more debt on poor countries. Furthermore, public-private partnerships have been promoted to leverage private investments in infrastructure and services in poor countries. However, in addition to creating new inequalities, they’ve often turned out to be expensive time bombs of hidden debt as faulty contract designs tend to put all the financial risks involved on the public side of the partnership.

Following the insufficient levels of tax revenue and development aid, debt-creating finance has been used to raise money. Developing countries have embarked on a borrowing boom, and issued expensive high-yield bonds on financial markets. With the interest rates on safe assets in Europe remaining near or below zero, these bonds became very popular among rich country investors looking for yields.

And that brings us back to the debt emergency. As a matter of urgency, governments must negotiate an international agreement on responsible lending and borrowing to prevent sovereign debt crises. Similarly, when a crisis is unpreventable, an orderly and rules-based procedure is the best way to address any insolvency in a speedy, fair, responsible and sustainable manner. The resistance of developed countries towards developing these solutions is hard to understand and an irresponsibility as such.

This week’s Financing for Development Forum provides a unique opportunity for governments to start fixing the unsolved problems from Addis. It is one of the few operational multilateral spaces where all nations are represented on an equal footing, and global agreements on economic governance can be made. But for progress to happen, we will need a large coalition of progressive governments to push for change.

It is hard to imagine us moving forward without Europe taking a leading role. But unfortunately, European nations have in the past not always played a constructive role in UN negotiations on economic matters. Just last month, EU countries voted against a UN Human Rights Council Resolution, which aimed to ensure that human rights are protected in cases of debt crises and austerity.

The 2019 Financing for Development Forum is governments’ chance to reinforce their effort to prevent the Sustainable Development Agenda from falling off the tracks. It is time for Europe to come to the UN’s negotiation table and actually help develop global solutions. This is the only way to ensure that we achieve the SDGs, stop climate change, protect human rights, and avoid that the next wave of debt crises derails the UN’s 2030 Agenda.

Kategorien: english, Ticker

17. April 2019

ONE - 17. April 2019 - 12:30

1. Ägypten: Mehr Macht für al-Sisi
Unter anderem Tagesschau.de, Zeit Online, die Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, die Süddeutsche Zeitung, die Tageszeitung (taz) und Spiegel Online berichten, dass durch eine Verfassungsänderung die Kompetenzen sowie die mögliche Regierungszeit des ägyptischen Präsidenten Abdel Fattah al-Sisi erweitert werden. 2013 habe al-Sisi als Verteidigungsminister und Oberbefehlshaber der Armee den damaligen Präsidenten Muhammad Mursi gestürzt. Anschließend habe er sowohl 2014 als auch 2018 die Präsidentschaftswahl laut offiziellen Angaben mit 97 Prozent der Stimmen gewonnen. Nun habe das von seinen Anhänger*innen dominierte Parlament einer Verfassungsänderung zugestimmt, die vorsehe, die Amtszeit des Präsidenten ab sofort auf sechs Jahre zu verlängern. Zudem sehe eine Sonderregelung vor, dass frühere Chefs des Militärgeheimdienstes auch für eine dritte Amtszeit antreten dürfen. Damit könne al-Sisi theoretisch bis 2030 im Amt bleiben. Zudem bekomme der Präsident mehr Einfluss auf die Justiz und die Rolle des Militärs werde gestärkt. Die Änderungen müssen nächste Woche vom ägyptischen Volk bestätigt werden. Eine Zustimmung gelte als sicher.

2. Kein Geld für Entwicklung
Wie unter anderem der Tagesspiegel, Deutschlandfunk, Focus Online, das Handelsblatt die Aachener Nachrichten und der General-Anzeiger Bonn melden, geht die deutsche Bundesregierung von einem noch geringeren Wirtschaftswachstum aus als bisher angenommen. Am Vormittag habe Bundeswirtschaftsminister Peter Altmaier (CDU) die Wachstumsprognose für das laufende Jahr von bisher 1,0 Prozent auf 0,5 Prozent reduziert. Die Steuerschätzung Anfang Mai dürfe damit um mindestens zehn Milliarden Euro pro Jahr geringer ausfallen als noch im Herbst 2018 prognostiziert. Da der Bund ab nächstem Jahr zusätzlich mehr Geld an die Länder abgebe, werde das Defizit des Bundes umso größer sein. Laut Eckhard Rehberg (CDU) habe Bundesfinanzminister Olaf Scholz (SPD) bei den Eckwerten für den Bundeshaushalt Defizite bereits eingespeist. Jedoch müssen nun zusätzliche Einsparungen getroffen werden, um die schwarze Null zu halten. Johannes Kahrs (SPD) sehe nun auch keinen Spielraum mehr für die geforderten Steigerungen beim Verteidigungs- bzw. Entwicklungshaushalt.

3. Repressionen in Ostafrika
Die Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung veröffentlichte heute ein Gespräch mit Tansanias Oppositionsführer Tundu Lissu. Vor eineinhalb Jahren habe der Politiker knapp einen Anschlag in der Hauptstadt Doboma überlebt, bei dem ihn 16 Kugeln getroffen haben. Der Anführer der Oppositionspartei Chadema befinde sich seither in medizinischer Behandlung im Ausland. Nissu habe keinen Zweifel, dass der Anschlag von der Regierung ausgeübt wurde. Seitdem fordere er deutsche und europäische Politiker*innen dazu auf, Druck auf die Regierung in Tansania auszuüben und das Regime nicht mehr zu unterstützen. Nissu bezeichne das Land unter Präsident John Magufuli als „Diktatur“ und „Polizeistaat“. Die politische Opposition, die Presse und die Zivilgesellschaft werden unterdrückt, kriminalisiert, inhaftiert oder getötet. Die Tageszeitung (taz) lässt heute burundische Exil-Journalist*innen zu Wort kommen. Diese berichten von einer vergleichbaren Lage in Burundi. Präsident Pierre Nkurunziza lasse insbesondere seit den gegen ihn gerichteten Protesten 2015 Menschen foltern, verschwinden oder inhaftieren. Hunderttausende haben deshalb bereits das Land verlassen.

 

The post 17. April 2019 appeared first on ONE.

Kategorien: Ticker

UNESCO-Experten erklären sich zur Unterstützung des Wiederaufbaus der Pariser Notre Dame bereit

Vereinte Nationen - 17. April 2019 - 10:55

April 2019 – „Zwei Drittel des mittelalterlichen Daches der Kathedrale Notre Dame in Paris sind nach dem verheerenden Brand am Montagabend eingestürzt. UN-Kulturexperten haben sich bereit erklärt, den Wiederaufbau des ikonischen Bauwerks zu unterstützen,“ so die Direktorin des UNESCO-Weltkulturerbes, Mechtild Rössler, nach einem Besuch am Dienstag.

Sie beschrieb, wie Menschen außerhalb des Wahrzeichens der Stadt und der Nation beteten und immer noch versuchten, das Ausmaß der Katastrophe zu erfassen:

„Ich habe viele Menschen gesehen, die von der Metro zu Notre Dame gefahren sind, und viele stehen immer noch unter Schock. Es ist nämlich nicht nur ein Gebäude für die christliche Gemeinschaft, es ist für uns alle. Es ist ein universelles Symbol und es ist das Zentrum Frankreichs. Das ist wirklich schockierend für die Menschen und sie haben etwas verloren das Teil ihrer Identität ist."    

Rössler sagte, dass ein Team von UNESCO-Experten zur Verfügung stehe, um die Stabilität des Mauerwerks und mögliche Schäden an Buntglasfenstern zu untersuchen.

Die UNESCO-Generaldirektorin Audrey Azoulay erklärte zudem, dass eine „schnelle Schadensbewertung" so schnell wie möglich mit den Behörden durchgeführt werden sollte.

Nachdem sie am Montagabend die Anlage von Notre Dame besucht hatte, sagte Azoulay: „Wir alle sind untröstlich". Die Kathedrale gehört zum Weltkulturerbe, das 1991 offiziell als „Paris und das Ufer der Seine" in die Liste des Weltkulturerbes aufgenommen wurde. 

Kategorien: Ticker

PRESS CONFERENCE: “Civil Society’s Concerns For the G-20 Summit” (18 April 2019)

#C20 18 - 17. April 2019 - 9:00

PRESS CONFERENCE: “Civil Society’s Concerns For the G-20 Summit”

Date & Time:
 Thursday, April 18, 2019, 14:00 – 15:00

Venue:
The Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Japan

Speakers:
Yuka Iwatsuki, C20 Chair & President of Action against Child Exploitation
Atsuko Miwa, C20 Co-Chair & Asia-Pacific Human Rights Information Center
Masaki Inaba, C20 Sherpa & Japan Civil Society Network on SDGs –SDGs Japan

Language:
The speech and Q & A will be in Japanese with English interpretation.

On June 28-29, nearly 30 world leaders gather in Osaka for the Group of Twenty (G-20) Leaders’ Summit. In advance of that, civil society organizations in Japan and abroad advising the G20 meet in Tokyo from April 21-23 for the Civil 20 (Civil Society 20) meeting to hammer out their recommendations which will presented to the Japanese government.

With crackdowns, sometimes violent, on civil society groups worldwide, worries about possible in Osaka are growing, especially in the wake of local media reports about police drills to combat “terrorism”. In the Asian region, fears are that civil society groups are becoming increasingly politically marginalized and ignored, especially at multilateral meetings like the G20.Data privacy is issue expected to be raised at the G20 meeting. In addition, following a speech by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at the World Economic Forum in January, Japan plans discuss better worldwide management of the digital economy. That has prompted worldwide fears about Big Brother and the free and equitable flow of information. Japanese and civil society groups have specific recommendations for the digital economy, which they will present.

To learn how civil society organizations view Japan’s leadership of the G20 process, what their top issues of concern are, and what recommendations they’ll make at C20, please join us for a press conference with Yuka Iwatsuki, C20 chair, Atsuko Miwa, C20 Co-Chair, and Masaki Inaba, who serves as the C20 sherpa. Also attending and available to answer questions will be Valeria Milanes, of the Argentina-based Association of Civil Rights, and Natasha Matic, of the King Khan Foundation in Saudi Arabia.

Doors open for TV crew at 13:15, for all others at 13:30, still cameras included.

Please reserve in advance, 3211-3161 or on the website (still & TV cameras inclusive). Reservations and cancellations are not complete without confirmation.

Professional Activities Committee

Kategorien: english, Ticker

Summer School Social Entrepreneurship, Dortmund, 24-25 May 2019

Postgraduates - 17. April 2019 - 7:47

The M.Sc. Programme „SPRING – Regional Development Planning and Management” at TU Dortmund University, together with the ImpactHub Ruhr, is organizing a Summer School on Social Entrepreneurshipwhich will take place in Dortmund on May 24th and 25th, 2019.

This training workshop enables international students to develop a business idea (based on the UN’s sustainability goals) that can solve social and/or ecological problems in their home countries. In order to put an idea on a solid economic footing, methods and practices of entrepreneurial thinking are introduced and applied to transform the idea into a business model. Complementary methods in the area of marketing and financing ensure the participants a well-rounded understanding of the process from developing an idea to self-employment. With a concluding short presentation („elevator-pitch“) attendees practice summarizing and presenting their idea to investors or financiers.

You can find all the information related to application here.

Kategorien: english, Jobs, Ticker

vostel.de: Mit einer Volunteering-Plattform zum erfolgreichen Social Business

reset - 17. April 2019 - 6:57
Hanna Lutz und Stephanie Frost haben aus Versehen ein Sozialunternehmen gegründet. RESET hat mit Hanna darüber gesprochen, wie es dazu kam und wo die beiden mit ihrer Freiwilligenplattform heute stehen.
Kategorien: Ticker

The Donbas Conflict

SWP - 17. April 2019 - 0:00

In 2014, in response to the Ukrainian “Euromaidan”, Russia annexed Cri­mea and provoked a war in eastern Ukraine. The ensuing conflict still claims lives today. For the past five years Germany and its Western partners have been trying to resolve the conflict politically, to date without success. The Minsk ceasefire agreements of 2014 and 2015 have still not been implemented.

All the directly involved actors bear responsibility. The separatist “People’s Republics” in Donetsk and Luhansk have established dictatorial quasi-state structures but remain almost completely dependent on Moscow. Russia refuses to acknowledge its role as a party to the conflict. Ukraine has ful­filled some of its obligations under the Minsk Agreements, but neglected others. The situation is exacerbated by negative dynamics on all levels. Kyiv and the “People’s Republics” are drifting steadily apart, while millions living along the line of contact experience terrible humanitarian suffering. This threatens to establish a state of permanent poverty and underdevelopment in the regions affected by the conflict.

The European Union and its member states pursue a division of labour. Brussels maintains Union-wide sanctions against Russia and forges ahead with implementing the Association Agreement with Ukraine. Germany and France conduct peace talks in the so-called Normandy Format. All conflict parties must be reminded to avoid escalation risks. Much greater attention must be directed to the local level and especially the humanitarian crisis. Action at this level is limited in reach but imperative for progress towards peace.

Kategorien: Ticker

Die Fokussierung auf die Wahl in Nigeria überdeckt die Rückkehr des Terrors

SWP - 17. April 2019 - 0:00

Die Wählerinnen und Wähler in Nigeria haben mit 55,6 % der Stimmen den amtieren­den Präsidenten Buhari wiedergewählt. Sein größter Konkurrent Abubakar hat es auch im vierten Anlauf nicht geschafft, Präsident zu werden. Letztendlich hat bei der Wahl im bevölkerungsreichsten Land Afrikas der vertrauenswürdigere Kandidat ge­wonnen: Ihm traut die Bevölkerung noch am ehesten zu, die Sicherheitslage in den Griff zu bekommen. Und diese ist zunehmend schwieriger geworden. Neben der nach wie vor angespannten Lage im Nigerdelta, der Piraterie im Seegebiet vor Nigeria, den marodierenden Banden im Nordwesten, dem weiterhin offenen Konflikt zwischen Bauern und Viehhirten (Fulani) im Middle Belt, der separatistischen Bewegung der »Indigenous People of Biafra« (IPOB) im Südosten drängt sich Boko Haram im Nord­osten wieder stärker in den Vordergrund. Seit November 2018 ist die Zahl der Angriffe massiv gestiegen. Sie richten sich nicht mehr wahllos gegen die Zivilbevölkerung, sondern gezielt gegen die Sicherheitskräfte. Möglicherweise gewinnt der »Islamische Staat« (IS) in Westafrika an Gewicht.

Kategorien: Ticker

Executive Update: UN Global Compact fordert langfristige, transformative Multi-Stakeholder Partnerschaften

Global Compact - 17. April 2019 - 0:00
Um die Sustainable Development Goals bis 2030 zu erreichen, bedarf es langfristiger, transformativer Multi-Stakeholder Partnerschaften mit erheblichem Skalierungspotential, betonte Lise Kingo, Exekutivdirektorin des UN Global Compact, anlässlich des Economic and Social Council Partnership Forums (ECOSOC) am 11. April 2019 in New York.
Kategorien: Ticker

Maßnahmen zur Stärkung der Umsetzung der Agenda 2030

#2030Agenda.de - 16. April 2019 - 22:48

Der Staatssekretärsausschuss für nachhaltige Entwicklung wird sich in seiner Sitzung am 27. Mai damit befassen, wie die Bundesregierung die Umsetzung der Agenda 2030 für nachhaltige Entwicklung stärken kann. Anlass ist der vierjährige Jahrestag der Verabschiedung der Agenda, der am 24. und 25. September 2019 in New York mit einem internationalen Gipfel begangen wird. Konkret will der Staatssekretärsausschuss Maßnahmen beschließen, die die Effizienz der Umsetzungsaktivitä- ten erhöhen und die multilateralen Prozesse besser miteinander verzahnen sollen. Darüber hinaus geht es um die Verbesserung der Kommunikation der Ziele der Agenda 2030 in Deutschland.

Wir empfehlen der Bundesregierung zur Stärkung des Hochrangigen Politischen Forums der Vereinten Nationen (HLPF) die persönliche Teilnahme der Bundeskanzlerin am Gipfel im September und grundsätzlich eine Teilnahme am HLPF auf Minister_innen-Ebene sicherzustellen. im Jahr 2021 einen weiteren freiwilligen Staatenbericht vorzulegen und dies beim Gipfel im September anzukündigen. sich für eine einheitliche, qualitativ hochwertige Berichterstattung einzusetzen, die inhaltliche und politische Wechselwirkungen zwischen den Nachhaltigkeitszielen aufzeigt („Nexus-Ansatz“) und sich konsequent am Prinzip „Niemanden Zurücklassen“ orientiert. Dem sollte der deutsche Bericht 2021 entsprechen. sich bereits beim Gipfel für eine substanzielle Teilhabe der UN Major Groups, bestehend aus Vertreter_innen der Zivilgesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft, an der Verhandlung der Gipfel-Abschlusserklärung einzusetzen. Darüber hinaus sollte sie
Kategorien: Ticker

التصدیر من أجل النمو: تحدید القطاعات الرائدة في مصر وتونس باستخدام منھجیة فضاء المنتجات (Arabic Version of: Exporting for growth: identifying leading sectors for Egypt and Tunisia using the Product Space Methodology)

DIE - 16. April 2019 - 16:00
The structural transformation of countries moves them towards more sophisticated, higher-value products. Network analysis, using the Product Space Methodology (PSM), guides countries towards leading export sectors. The identification process rests on two pillars: (1) available opportunities, that is, products in the product space that the country does not yet export which are more sophisticated than its current exports; and (2) the stock of a country’s accumulated productive knowledge and the technical capabilities that, through spillovers, enable it to produce slightly more sophisticated products. The PSM points to a tradeoff between capabilities and complexity. The methodology identifies very basic future products that match the two countries’ equally basic capabilities. Top products are simple animal products, cream and yogurt, modestly sophisticated plastics, metals and minerals such as salt and sulphur for Egypt; and slightly more sophisticated products such as containers and bobbins (plastics) and broom handles and wooden products for Tunisia, which is the more advanced of the two countries. A more interventionist approach steers the economy towards maximum sophistication, thus identifying highly complex manufactured metals, machinery, equipment, electronics and chemicals. Despite pushing for economic growth and diversification, these sectors push urban job creation and require high-skill workers, with the implication that low-skilled labour may be pushed into unemployment or into low-value informal jobs. A middle ground is a forward-looking strategy that takes sectors’ shares in world trade into account. This approach identifies medicaments in the chemicals sector; seats (e.g. car and aeroplane seats) in the “other highly manufactured” sector; inflated rubber tyres in the chemicals community (plastics and rubber); containers, bobbins and packages of plastics also in the plastics and rubber section; and articles of iron and steel in the metals sector for Egypt. The top product for Tunisia is furniture in the highly manufactured and special purpose goods community, followed by three products in plastics and rubber in the chemicals community, and finally three machinery sectors.
Kategorien: Ticker

التصدیر من أجل النمو: تحدید القطاعات الرائدة في مصر وتونس باستخدام منھجیة فضاء المنتجات

DIE - 16. April 2019 - 16:00
The structural transformation of countries moves them towards more sophisticated, higher-value products. Network analysis, using the Product Space Methodology (PSM), guides countries towards leading export sectors. The identification process rests on two pillars: (1) available opportunities, that is, products in the product space that the country does not yet export which are more sophisticated than its current exports; and (2) the stock of a country’s accumulated productive knowledge and the technical capabilities that, through spillovers, enable it to produce slightly more sophisticated products. The PSM points to a tradeoff between capabilities and complexity. The methodology identifies very basic future products that match the two countries’ equally basic capabilities. Top products are simple animal products, cream and yogurt, modestly sophisticated plastics, metals and minerals such as salt and sulphur for Egypt; and slightly more sophisticated products such as containers and bobbins (plastics) and broom handles and wooden products for Tunisia, which is the more advanced of the two countries. A more interventionist approach steers the economy towards maximum sophistication, thus identifying highly complex manufactured metals, machinery, equipment, electronics and chemicals. Despite pushing for economic growth and diversification, these sectors push urban job creation and require high-skill workers, with the implication that low-skilled labour may be pushed into unemployment or into low-value informal jobs. A middle ground is a forward-looking strategy that takes sectors’ shares in world trade into account. This approach identifies medicaments in the chemicals sector; seats (e.g. car and aeroplane seats) in the “other highly manufactured” sector; inflated rubber tyres in the chemicals community (plastics and rubber); containers, bobbins and packages of plastics also in the plastics and rubber section; and articles of iron and steel in the metals sector for Egypt. The top product for Tunisia is furniture in the highly manufactured and special purpose goods community, followed by three products in plastics and rubber in the chemicals community, and finally three machinery sectors.
Kategorien: Ticker

Exporting for growth: identifying leading sectors for Egypt and Tunisia using the Product Space Methodology (Arabic version)

DIE - 16. April 2019 - 16:00
The structural transformation of countries moves them towards more sophisticated, higher-value products. Network analysis, using the Product Space Methodology (PSM), guides countries towards leading export sectors. The identification process rests on two pillars: (1) available opportunities, that is, products in the product space that the country does not yet export which are more sophisticated than its current exports; and (2) the stock of a country’s accumulated productive knowledge and the technical capabilities that, through spillovers, enable it to produce slightly more sophisticated products. The PSM points to a tradeoff between capabilities and complexity. The methodology identifies very basic future products that match the two countries’ equally basic capabilities. Top products are simple animal products, cream and yogurt, modestly sophisticated plastics, metals and minerals such as salt and sulphur for Egypt; and slightly more sophisticated products such as containers and bobbins (plastics) and broom handles and wooden products for Tunisia, which is the more advanced of the two countries. A more interventionist approach steers the economy towards maximum sophistication, thus identifying highly complex manufactured metals, machinery, equipment, electronics and chemicals. Despite pushing for economic growth and diversification, these sectors push urban job creation and require high-skill workers, with the implication that low-skilled labour may be pushed into unemployment or into low-value informal jobs. A middle ground is a forward-looking strategy that takes sectors’ shares in world trade into account. This approach identifies medicaments in the chemicals sector; seats (e.g. car and aeroplane seats) in the “other highly manufactured” sector; inflated rubber tyres in the chemicals community (plastics and rubber); containers, bobbins and packages of plastics also in the plastics and rubber section; and articles of iron and steel in the metals sector for Egypt. The top product for Tunisia is furniture in the highly manufactured and special purpose goods community, followed by three products in plastics and rubber in the chemicals community, and finally three machinery sectors.
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South Africa’s changing role in global development structures: being in them but not always of them

DIE - 16. April 2019 - 15:40
South Africa’s engagement in global development structures has evolved since 1994, when the country re-entered the international community. The historical philosophical underpinnings of the African National Congress, the governing party, aimed to reaffirm the country’s place in the Global South and African firmament after the end of apartheid. This understanding is necessary in the context of South Africa’s priorities over the past 25 years, not least in the development debates. The last two decades have seen significant attempts to develop global norms that tackle the serious developmental challenges faced by developing countries. The paper explores these initiatives and divides them into three streams – those undertaken by the United Nations, those begun by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD-DAC), and those that may be understood as part of club governance processes (such as the G20, the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa), and the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA). South Africa’s engagement in these global development structures is analysed, along with its contribution to the evolution of African agency on the issues of global development. South Africa has strongly criticised existing power relations while undertaking strategic engagements with the North, centred on the vision of an African renaissance and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development initiative. The country has consistently argued that Northern aid cannot be put on the same platform as South-South Cooperation as they have different origins. Other African states and continental institutions have also ramped up their engagement on global development and development cooperation in recent years, which the paper also explores. While South Africa has always identified Africa as a core pillar of its foreign policy, its interests have not always cohered with those of the rest of the continent.  Lastly, the paper explores possible avenues that South Africa might pursue in the current polarised multilateral environment. Its biggest challenge is the tension regarding its Global South identity, which has to balance its commitment to African issues and institutional processes, and its positioning via its membership of the BRICS as an emerging power that seeks to contest the current global power configurations.
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Narrations of Sustainability

KMGNE - 16. April 2019 - 14:28
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16. April 2019

ONE - 16. April 2019 - 14:06

1. Masern-Infektionen nehmen drastisch zu
Unter anderem das ZDF, die Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, die Deutsche Welle, die Welt, Spiegel Online und die Frankfurter Rundschau melden, dass die weltweite Anzahl der Masern-Infektionen dramatisch zunimmt. Wie die Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) mitteilte, seien im ersten Quartal 2019 mit 112.000 Fällen in 170 Ländern 300 Prozent mehr Infektionen als im Vergleichszeitraum des Vorjahrs registriert worden. Die Organisation gehe davon aus, dass nur jeder zehnte Fall gemeldet werde und damit die Dunkelziffer noch deutlich höher ausfalle. 2017 seien 110.000 Menschen an Masern gestorben, darunter viele Kinder. Über 95 Prozent der tödlichen Krankheitsverläufe seien dabei auf Länder mit geringem Einkommen und schlechter Gesundheits-Infrastruktur entfallen. Der WHO zufolge sei der Vormarsch der gefährlichen Viruserkrankung einem geringen Impfschutz geschuldet. Gründe hierfür seien der schlechte Zugang zu entlegenen und umkämpften Regionen und gezielte Desinformationen gegen Impfkampagnen. Wie die Deutsche Presse-Agentur (dpa) meldet, ist Madagaskar mit 120.000 Masern-Erkrankungen seit September am stärksten betroffen. In der Demokratischen Republik Kongo seien seit Jahresbeginn 41.000 Menschen erkrankt, wovon 760 gestorben seien.

2. Sudan: Druck auf Militärrat wächst
Wie unter anderem Zeit Online, die Tageszeitung (taz), die Deutsche Welle, die Welt, Spiegel Online und die Freie Presse berichten, dauern im Sudan die Proteste weiter an. Zudem wachse der internationale Druck auf den Militärrat. Gestern haben Soldat*innen erfolglos versucht, die Sitzblockade vor der Zentrale der Streitkräfte aufzulösen. Die USA und andere Nationen haben den Militärrat daraufhin ermahnt, die friedlichen Proteste gewähren zu lassen. Zudem habe die Afrikanische Union (AU) den Streitkräften gestern das Ultimatum gestellt, Sudans AU-Mitgliedschaft auszusetzen, gebe das Militär nicht innerhalb der nächsten 15 Tage die Macht ab. Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel habe nicht nur die Übergabe der Macht an eine zivile Regierung, sondern auch einen wirtschaftlichen und politischen Reformprozess gefordert. Allerdings üben auch Akteure wie die Golfstaaten und Ägypten, die kein Interesse an einem demokratischen Sudan haben, Druck in die andere Richtung aus. Die sudanesischen Generäle haben die Opposition am Sonntag aufgefordert, eine Person als Regierungschef*in auszuwählen. Das Militär wolle jedoch weiterhin das Verteidigungs- und Innenministerium kontrollieren.

3. Lage in Algerien
In den letzten Tagen thematisierten unter anderem Zeit Online, die Tageszeitung (taz), die Frankfurter Rundschau, die Deutsche Welle und die junge Welt die momentane Situation in Algerien. Nach dem Rücktritt von Präsident Abdelaziz Bouteflika dauern die Proteste in Algerien weiter an. Die Menschen fordern ein Ende des alten Systems und einen politischen Neuanfang. Während die Polizei die Proteste bisher toleriert habe, werde seit der Ernennung Abdelkader Bensalahs zum Übergangsstaatschef gewaltsam gegen die Demonstrierenden vorgegangen. Wasserwerfer, Gummigeschosse und Tränengas seien zum Einsatz gekommen. Zur selben Zeit werden erste Kandidaturen für die Präsidentschaftswahl am 4. Juli vorangetrieben. Viele Algerier*innen glauben, die alte Elite wolle mit dem Übergangsprozess bis zu den Wahlen Zeit gewinnen, um ihre Macht zu konsolidieren. Die Opposition und die Protestbewegung diskutieren währenddessen darüber, ob sie sich für eine Einheitskandidatur, einen Wahlboykott oder einen Generalstreik aussprechen sollen.

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