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Religious Identity and Politics of Citizenship in South Asia: A Reflection on Refugees and Migrants in India

21. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

The article addresses the post-secular shift in the global politics of citizenship and migration where secular and inclusive ideals are being threatened by emerging right-wing leadership, especially in the Indian subcontinent. It also highlights the politicization of migration and citizenship through ethnic and nationalistic discourses, illustrating examples of refugees and migrants in India. It also investigates the nexus between the controversial Citizenship Amendment Act 2019 and the divisive National Register of Citizens.

Unwanted Identities: The ‘Religion Line’ and Global Islamophobia

21. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

The article discusses why Islamophobia constitutes a major racist discourse today and illustrates how we can make sense of this global relevance of Islamophobia. The author explains the centrality of the ‘religion line’ in the current global world system by drawing on the post-Cold War era. Through a decolonial reading of Islamophobia, three empirical cases are chosen to discuss differences and commonalities between various forms of Islamophobia in the Xingjiang/China, Egypt, and the USA exploring the effects of this global phenomenon on the discursive construction of identities, citizenship rights, and governance.

Invisibles: An Ethnography About Identity, Rights and Citizenship in the Trajectories of Brazilians Adults Without Papers

17. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

This article synthesizes some results of the author’s Ph.D. thesis, an ethnography about Brazilian adults who lived without papers until the moment they sought their birth certificates, which were being offered as a free public service in downtown Rio de Janeiro. In a dialogue with the concept of the ‘margins of the state’ (Das and Poole in Anthropology in the margins of the state, School of American Research, New Mexico, 2004), the article shows how undocumented people disregard themselves as subjects and analyzes the birth certificate as an institutional rite (Bourdieu in A economia das trocas linguísticas, Edusp, São Paulo, 1996), demonstrating that the search for papers is also for rights and citizenship.

Closing the Gap Between Legal and Social Citizenship for Roma People

15. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

While Roma people are most often legal citizens in their countries, long-term persecution and discrimination has affected their social citizenship: their ability to fully participate as active citizens, their capacity to pursue high-status professions and their choices and rights. This essay integrates personal reflections with a historical and contemporary overview of citizenship rights for Roma, makes recommendations for reducing the gap between their legal and social citizenship, and explores the possibility to redefine the Roma condition in the twenty-first century.

Enforcing Law and Norms for Good Citizens: One View of China’s Social Credit System Project

15. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

Despite widespread mischaracterization and misconception about its policy objective and content, China’s social credit system project at this point consists primarily of a set of new approaches to enforcing conduct norms that already exist in the country’s multi-layered legal and extralegal norm systems. This essay explains such enforcement logic inherent in the project’s application to regulating behaviour of individual citizens. It also argues that the project’s implementation of its envisioned new enforcement paradigm is foremost challenged by design difficulties.

The Haunting Specter of Hindu Ethnonationalist-Neocolonial Development in the Indian Occupied Kashmir

14. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

The Indian government says that the removal of Kashmir’s autonomy is for development, but it should be seen as embedded in a structure of neocolonialism based on fundamentalist Hindu ethnonationalism or Hindutva and fueled by neoliberalism in which even Muslims living in India are cast as invaders and foreigners. Kashmiri, doubly marked as the Other: first as Muslims and second as seekers of self-determination, fear their loss of territorial sovereignty will pave way for settler colonialism, dispossession of indigenous people and rampant exploitation of resources resulting in neocolonial maldevelopment.

Finance’s New Avatar

14. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

The transformation of finance in recent decades has involved new property rights creating novel financial assets and transnational financial relations. Ascendant financialization, associated with financial globalization, has facilitated the capture of financial rents from changes in the prices of securities, held directly or indirectly, and often financed through repo markets. Commercial banks increasingly serve securities and derivative markets, as shadow banking has grown in significance, accelerating financial wealth concentration.

Contested Conservation: Implications for Rights, Democratization, and Citizenship in Southern Africa

14. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

Two competing ideological approaches have emerged in African wildlife conservation: an exclusionary approach that is aligned with the, mostly Western, animal protection movement; and the inclusive human rights-based approach of many African governments, which reflects the opinions and rights of their citizens. The emergence of social media as a campaign tool used by animal protection organizations reduces the ability of rural African citizens to engage with policy processes affecting their rights and strengthens the ability of misinformed western citizens to assume this role.

What is Slowing Growth in China?

14. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

A small part of the slowdown of growth in China in the recent decade may be due to the decline in population growth. The major factor contributing to China’s growth slowdown has been the reversal of earlier policies resulting in foreign exchange reserve accumulation. The resulting pressure for the currency to appreciate undermined the international competitiveness of Chinese exports. This has led to the decline in China’s export/GDP and investment/GDP ratios besides reorienting growth towards domestic consumption, thus also reducing household savings.

Indigenous Peoples Re-Membering Their Futures in Extraordinary Times

14. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

Political turmoil has become widespread in many regions of the world. Trends including right-wing populism, widening income inequality, and the planetary threats of climate change and biodiversity loss affect the rights and survival of Indigenous Peoples (IPs). This article will examine why some of these trends affect IPs in unique ways, and will suggest pathways toward supporting IPs’ right of self-determination for its own sake and for its value to all life.

Genetic Justice: Identity and Equality in the Biotech Age

14. Januar 2020 - 0:00
Abstract

As genetic technologies merge with forensics, medicine, and human reproduction, renewed eugenic temptations are arising. The prospect of heritable genetic modification has been debated for decades; the prevailing position in international policy and human rights documents has been that, due to its numerous safety and social risks, it should be legally off limits. The question is now at a tipping point. With decisive action, we can avoid this threat to the future of equality.

Does Brexit Mean a Return to Sectarianism? Beyond ‘the Border Issue’, the Future of Social Identities in Northern Ireland from a Political Psychological Perspective

20. Dezember 2019 - 0:00
Abstract

the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, appeared to have put an end to the political violence between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. However, although violence has been reduced after the Good Friday Agreement, the conflict between the two groups, which has deep historical roots, is more likely to be considered a continuous problem on the island. In the Brexit climate where the contested rhetoric of ‘sovereignty’ is salient, the integrationist process of the GFA may reverse into re-segregation and ancient enmities between denominational groups. Therefore, using both psychological and historical analyses, this article discusses how Brexit affects national identity dynamics in post-conflict Northern Ireland from a political psychological perspective.

Imagining Citizenship and Belonging in Ghana

5. Dezember 2019 - 0:00
Abstract

In recent times, questions about who should be considered an insider and who an outsider have come to dominate political debates across the world. In postcolonial countries like Ghana where the modern state is built upon pre-existing social formations, there are anxieties that national attachment would be eclipsed by the strength of ethnic ties. However, this article presents qualitative evidence that suggests that individuals were inspired to a stronger attachment to the national state because, not in spite, of their keen awareness of the ‘inauthenticity’ of the national state.

Climate Migration and Loss: Exploring the Conceptual Borders of Citizenship, Sovereign Authority, and the Deterritorialized State

5. Dezember 2019 - 0:00
Abstract

The dominant understandings of ‘citizenship’ and ‘state sovereign authority’ unduly limit the range of solutions available to policy and law makers in their efforts to mitigate the negative impacts of climate-induced migration. The article offers a deterritorialized view of these concepts, which it suggests may be better suited to meet the full range of ethical and political challenges presented by climate change to international migration.

Fixing the Climate? How Geoengineering Threatens to Undermine the SDGs and Climate Justice

1. Dezember 2019 - 0:00
Abstract

Geoengineering—large-scale technological interventions in the Earth’s natural processes and ecosystems promoted to counteract some of the symptoms of climate change—threaten to undermine the achievement of SDGs and climate justice. Both Carbon Dioxide Removal and Solar Radiation Management schemes are bound to exacerbate concomitant socio-ecological and socio-economic global crises, deepen societal dependence on technocratic elites and large-scale technological systems and create new spaces for profit and power for new and old economic elites.

The Social Inclusion of Indigenous Peoples in Ecuador Before and During the Revolución Ciudadana

1. Dezember 2019 - 0:00
Abstract

This article investigates the evolution of social inclusion among indigenous peoples in Ecuador. It highlights how some policies have deepened social problems like poverty and inequality and reviews the literature on social inclusion to define the reference framework of the investigation, also considering some qualitative aspects, like cultural and linguistic barriers that are crucial for the effectiveness of the policies and essential to understand the indigenous social system. The article compares the actual indigenous condition with the period prior to the Revolución Ciudadana to highlight if notable changes occurred in the quality of life of the Ecuadorian indigenous peoples.

Labour, Justice and the Mechanization of Interpretation

1. Dezember 2019 - 0:00
Abstract

The biggest frontier of mechanization of the past 10 years has been the automation, broadly speaking, of interpretation. This includes recognition (for example, image recognition technologies used by security services), translation (Google Translate), searching for information (search engines), understanding (‘predictive algorithms’ that learn what books or movies you will like or what kind of propaganda will appeal to you, as used by Amazon, Netflix, or the Donald Trump campaign), trust (blockchain technologies such as Bitcoin), and negotiation (‘smart contracts’ as pioneered by firms such as Ethereum). This article explores how these technologies benefit business and why they have come to prominence now, the ways they degrade and exhaust the work of both humans and nonhumans, the parallels with earlier uses of machines to discipline and extract value from labour, and the implications for social movement strategy. The article also suggests some directions for research.

Exterminator Genes: The Right to Say No to Ethics Dumping

1. Dezember 2019 - 0:00
Abstract

The scientific-industrial complex is promoting a new wave of genetically modified organisms, in particular gene drive organisms, using the same hype with which they tried to persuade society that GMOs would be a magic bullet to solve world hunger. The Gates Foundation claims that GDOs could help wipe out diseases such as malaria. Powerful conservation lobby groups claim GDOs will protect engendered species. Not only are the benefits from GDOs based, like their predecessors, on flawed ecological thinking, but they are backed by the same agri-business interests that have devastated agroecological farming systems. The rights of communities to say ‘no’ to new genetic technologies is being eroded, despite United Nations agreements, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, which call for the free, prior and informed consent of affected communities to be respected. By exporting their field trials to countries with weak regulatory regimes and lowering of the standards of consent the Gates Foundation’s Target Malaria project has already been guilty of ethics dumping. These developments demonstrate the urgent need to democratize the development of new technologies.

SDG Indicators and BS/Index: The Power of Numbers in the Sustainable Development Debate

1. Dezember 2019 - 0:00
Abstract

Four years after the adoption of the SDGs, measuring progress towards them has been elusive. The ‘silo approach’ of pursuing each goal independently is stretched to its limit by the official Global Indicators Framework trying to count for each target, but lacking data or even agreed methodology for more than half of them. On the other hand, the attempt to reduce progress towards the SDGs to a single number ends up ignoring the many trade-offs between well-being associated to material consumption and planetary boundaries.

Anti-development Impacts of Tax-Related Provisions in Proposed Rules on Digital Trade in the WTO

1. Dezember 2019 - 0:00
Abstract

The ability of developing countries to achieve the SDGs will depend in large part on their ability to mobilize resources including through taxation. But new proposed rules in the WTO are threatening all countries’ ability to generate fiscal revenues through taxing the activity of transnational corporations. Under the guise of new talks on ‘e-commerce’, the largest TNCs are seeking to rig international rules to prevent governments from being able to assess tariffs on international transactions, as well as to assess taxes on corporate profits. If the talks in the WTO result in a binding agreement, the fastest-growing and most profitable sectors of the economy will be permanently released from the responsibility of contributing to the social and physical infrastructure on which their businesses are based, and governments will be unable to meet the social and development needs of their populations.

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