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The French response to the Corona Crisis: semi-presidentialism par excellence

GDI Briefing - 19. Januar 2038 - 4:14

This blog post analyses the response of the French government to the Coronavirus pandemic. The piece highlights how the semi-presidential system in France facilitates centralized decisions to manage the crisis. From a political-institutional perspective, it is considered that there were no major challenges to the use of unilateral powers by the Executive to address the health crisis, although the de-confinement phase and socio-economic consequences opens the possibility for more conflictual and opposing reactions. At first, approvals of the president and prime minister raised, but the strict confinement and the reopening measures can be challenging in one of the European countries with the highest number of deaths, where massive street protests, incarnated by the Yellow vests movement, have recently shaken the political scene.

Kategorien: english

2021 C20 Proposed Priorities

#C20 18 - 22. Januar 2021 - 20:58
The Italian Civil 20 Organizing Committee developed a reflection to offer key analytical elements to assess the current conjuncture and provide concrete proposals with respect to the civil society engagement in the 2021 G20 process. This document is meant to provide an outline input for the collective discussion.   Click here to read the document: [...]
Kategorien: english, Ticker

Kick off Meeting C20 2021. The Agenda

#C20 18 - 22. Januar 2021 - 19:02
C20 KICK-OFF MEETING 25-26-27 January 2021 AGENDA OVERVIEW The Civil20 Kick-Off Meeting is the first official event of the C20 process. It marks the transition from the preparatory phase of the Host Organizing Committee to the full C20 platform process. The three- days meeting aims to facilitate the collective definition of top-line objectives for the [...]
Kategorien: english, Ticker

Vote—What do you think should be the top priority for Africa in the year ahead?

Brookings - 22. Januar 2021 - 16:00

By Aloysius Uche Ordu

Each year, our scholars and other Africa experts contribute their thoughts on the top priorities for Africa for the upcoming year. In a year dominated by the twin economic and health crises under COVID-19, it’s even more difficult to parse out what should be a priority for local, national, and global leaders when it comes to Africa.

So, as we prepare to launch the Brookings Africa Growth Initiative’s flagship report, Foresight Africa, we’d would like to hear from you: Specifically, what do you think should be the top priority for Africa in the year ahead?

Take the poll >>

If we did not capture your priority, we invite you to tell us what it is in our comments section or tweet to @BrookingsGlobal using #ForesightAfrica.

The results will be revealed at the Foresight Africa event on January 27. We invite you to tune into the webcast.

       
Kategorien: english

The impact of patient capital on job quality, investments and firm performance: cross-country evidence on long-term finance

GDI Briefing - 22. Januar 2021 - 14:46

Despite its importance for development, long-term finance is particularly scarce in countries with lower income levels. This not only results in unrealised growth and employment creation at the national level and at the level of individual firms, but also undermines a broader shift towards better jobs. After all, many long-term investments comprise investments in labour that have the potential to contribute to improvements in the quality of jobs, through training to boost skill levels, the creation of more stable employment relationships, and the higher wages that result. This paper uses more than 17,000 firm-level observations from 73 mostly low- and middle-income countries between 2002 and 2009 to provide the first empirical evidence of the extent to which long-term finance affects the quality of jobs. Additionally, it looks into effects on investments and the performance of firms. The findings, based on inverse probability weighted regression adjustment, indicate that firms with long-term finance exhibit a share of permanent employees that is 0.9 percentage points higher, and train an additional 2.4 per cent of their production workers. The probability that firms invest in fixed assets or in innovations in their production process both increase by more than 5.5 percentage points, while employment and sales growth rises as well. The fact that the positive effects on job quality mostly disappear when defining long-term finance as loans with a maturity of more than one year instead of more than two years, underlines the importance of longer loan maturities for better jobs. Despite presenting favourable theoretical and descriptive arguments, it cannot be ruled out completely that unobservable variables affect the estimation of effect sizes.

Kategorien: english

Puzzles of political change in the Middle East: political liberalisation, authoritarian resilience and the question of systemic change

GDI Briefing - 22. Januar 2021 - 13:29

One decade after the Arab uprisings of 2010/11, the present discussion paper revisits processes of political change in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) with a focus on the question of systemic change. Core questions in this context are: How, among all possible varieties of political change, do we know when political change is systemic? When do we speak of “democratisation”, and when of “authoritarian upgrading” or “- re-consolidation”? Can we predict such processes? If not, can we at least tell when systemic transition is more or less likely to occur, and what influences its occurrence? The three parts of this discussion paper build on one another in order to address and answer these puzzles.
The introduction is followed by a conceptual second section (Section 2) that establishes the analytical frame of reference by discussing and defining key concepts needed for understanding and analysing change of and change in political regimes. That way, Part I can then review democratisation theories (Section 3) and distil, from these, variables that aim at explaining why sometimes nondemocratic regimes transform into democracies, whereas in other cases they do not (Section 4). Yet, not all political change is democratising in nature; hence Part II complements the picture by investigating theories of authoritarian resilience (Section 5). From that, it extracts (in Section 6) conditions for authoritarian survival. Based on this analytical groundwork, Part III turns towards the experience of the MENA region and, in a comprehensive section (Section 7), attempts at offering an overview and assessment of political change in that world region by looking at both structural conditions and strategic choices actors have made.
In conclusion (Section 8), the view that Tunisia remains the exceptional case of an at least initially successful transition to democracy is supported.
As democratisation is the outcome most feared by those who hold executive power in most MENA countries, autocrats are – in addition to conducive political and economic factors in the international and regional environments – engaged in constant processes of exchange and “authoritarian learning”. They have devised elaborate strategies to avoid just that: democratisation. Among the most important of such strategies is political reform and liberalisation, which enhance the immediate life expectancy of authoritarian regimes, but at the same time may nurture popular frustration in the long run. However, frustration in large segments of society makes systemic change, if and when it occurs, more likely to be violent and occur through rupture rather than to be peaceful and arise from negotiation. This, in turn, does not bode well for democratisation. Today’s processes of political reform and liberalisation hence tend to effectively prevent systemic change in the short and medium term, and they make violent conflict (including possible state breakdown) a more likely outcome than democratisation in the long run.

Kategorien: english

Listen to our CSR.digital Podcast: Digital Leadership for Resilient Businesses

SCP-Centre - 22. Januar 2021 - 12:27

Faced with a pandemic that challenged the conventional ways of doing business, many Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) had to reinvent themselves in order to keep up with the new dynamics. The CSR.digital conference on Digital Leadership gathered business representatives to discuss new leadership styles and organisational structures in SMEs, not only as a response to the pandemic but also as a vital prerequisite for resilient entrepreneurship.

The virtual conference, which was held in December 2020, focused on a perspective of leadership that adheres to the challenges and opportunities created by digital transformation, sustainability, and crises such as the Coronavirus pandemic.

As part of a panel discussion, Anna Yona, founder of Wilding Shoes, Lars Rückemann, board member of codecentric AG and Dr. Markus Baumanns from company companions presented their strategies and experiences on the role of digital leadership and the inspirational drivers that keep employees motivated, maintain the entrepreneurial spirit, and keep social and environmental sustainability high on the agenda.

From redefining organisational structures and driving decentralisation through to finding creative ways to foster informal exchange in spite of remote working, the panellists shared insights on how digital leadership can help SMEs to remain competitive and thrive.

Central to the discussion was the concept of ‘working with purpose’: how to provide employees the room to identify with their work and empower them to carry collaborative and innovative work regardless of where they are.

Highlights from the panel discussion are summarised in this video.

For the entire discussion, listen to our podcast.

Download the CSR.digital podcast now!

You can also listen to the podcast on Spotify. The panel discussion was followed by a lively exchange with the audience.

CSR.digital aims to inform and support SMEs in developing solutions for entrepreneurial challenges in the age of digitalisation and sustainability.

For further information, please contact Anna Hilger.

Der Beitrag Listen to our CSR.digital Podcast: Digital Leadership for Resilient Businesses erschien zuerst auf CSCP gGmbH.

Kategorien: english, Ticker

Resumen de noticias sobre la cooperación al desarrollo – 18-22 de enero de 2021

CSO Partnership - 22. Januar 2021 - 8:12
¿Sabías que?

Un ensayo fotográfico que presenta los principales hitos del movimiento por los derechos de la mujer, los avances y retrocesos, y las voces y aspiraciones de mujeres líderes de todos los rincones del mundo. http://bit.ly/35WGkG8  

Publicaciones/Declaraciones

Los copresidentes de la AOED publican una declaración de apoyo a la copresidenta Beverly Longid, cuya organización de pueblos indígenas en Filipinas se enfrenta a ataques maliciosos por parte del gobierno, y está siendo etiquetada como enemiga del Estado: http://bit.ly/2NnCpvv 

DECA Equipo Pueblo de la AOED organiza una conferencia de prensa sobre la recuperación y el fortalecimiento de los espacios cívicos en México – Nuestro artículo de resumen del evento arriba mencionado. http://bit.ly/3nYiz6Q 

Mantener el espacio cívico sano”: El informe anual 2019-2020 del Centro Internacional para la Ley Sin Fines de Lucro (ICNL) ha salido a la luz! https://bit.ly/3sGwSQT  

El Grupo Árabe para la Protección de la Naturaleza (APN), como parte del grupo de trabajo de la AOED sobre Conflictos y Fragilidad, lanzó su estudio de investigación sobre la realidad del trabajo de desarrollo en Yemen: https://bit.ly/39QcQuv  

El European Center for Not-for-Profit Law (ECNL) ha publicado las actualizaciones de CSO Meter sobre el entorno de la sociedad civil en los países de la Alianza Oriental, con Armenia, Bielorrusia, Moldavia, Azerbaiyán, Georgia y Ucrania: https://csometer.info/  

Racismo y discriminación institucionalizada en el despliegue de la vacuna COVID-19″. Declaración conjunta de la Red de ONG palestinas (PNGO), el Consejo Palestino de Organizaciones de Derechos Humanos (PHROC) y el Instituto Nacional Palestino de ONG (PNIN): http://bit.ly/3ism7Nk  

Eventos en línea ¡Guarde la fecha!

Compruebe su hora local: https://www.thetimezoneconverter.com/    

Del 25 al 29 de enero de 2021, la Red de Investigación de Asia-Pacífico (APRN) celebra su conferencia anual de investigación sobre los tratados de libre comercio (TLC) en Asia-Pacífico con el tema “Hacia una economía y una agenda comercial favorables a las personas”. Inscríbase en las sesiones plenarias: bit.ly/aprnrcon2021    

El 7º Simposio anual sobre el papel de la religión y las organizaciones religiosas en los asuntos internacionales tendrá lugar el 26 de enero de 2020 de 8 a 12:30 EST. El evento de este año se titula “2021: Un año decisivo para acelerar la igualdad, la equidad y la justicia de género”. Inscríbase: http://bit.ly/3ibPHXw  

El 26 de enero de 2021, a las 16:00 horas de Johannesburgo/ 10:00 horas de Manila, CIVICUS celebra un seminario web titulado “Narrativas positivas de la acción colectiva” – Inscríbase: http://bit.ly/3i6KqA8  

Del 23 al 31 de enero, la edición 2021 del Foro Social Mundial (FSM) se celebrará virtualmente. El FSM debe ser un espacio abierto para la reflexión, el debate democrático de ideas y la articulación de acciones efectivas por parte de las entidades y movimientos de la sociedad civil de todo el mundo. Consulta su programa e inscríbete (EN/FR/SP/ARABIC/CHINESE +): https://wsf2021.net/ 

¡Vea!

Nuestros colegas de DECA, Equipo Pueblo, AC dieron una conferencia de prensa sobre la Campaña Nacional sobre la Reducción de los Espacios Cívicos en México. http://bit.ly/3qAPSOT  

Foro de Solidaridad Asia-Pacífico en apoyo del movimiento campesino en la India. http://bit.ly/2KwyqvJ  

Seminario web del Centro Internacional de Derecho no Lucrativo (ICNL) sobre “La mejora de la gobernanza y la lucha contra la corrupción para el crecimiento inclusivo en Oriente Medio y el Norte de África”. http://bit.ly/3bUu2BP  

Convocatoria de proyectos/solicitudes

El Fondo de los Balcanes Occidentales ha lanzado una convocatoria abierta de trabajos de investigación “Impacto de COVID-19 en la sostenibilidad de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil en la región de los Balcanes Occidentales”. Solicite antes del 7 de febrero de 2021: https://bit.ly/3bxqyVF  

Los jóvenes activistas son bienvenidos a solicitar el Laboratorio de Acción Juvenil CIVICUS, un laboratorio de co-creación de un año para apoyar a los jóvenes activistas a ser más resistentes y sostenibles en su trabajo. Solicita antes del 1 de febrero de 2021 (ES): https://shorturl.at/zANPW  

Los jóvenes de la región de Asia-Pacífico están invitados a presentar su propuesta de negocio o idea innovadora para mejorar la vida de los migrantes, los desplazados y sus comunidades de acogida entre los pobres urbanos. Presenta tu candidatura a la iniciativa de Innovación Juvenil para la Movilidad Humana para obtener apoyo en el desarrollo de tu idea hasta convertirla en una empresa social viable. Solicita antes del 10 de febrero de 2021: https://bit.ly/youth4humanmobility  

Buena Lectura

¿Puede la sociedad civil sobrevivir a COVID-19? (ING) http://bit.ly/3sA7axo  

Los pueblos indígenas desconfían del plan de rescate de la biodiversidad de la ONU (ING) http://bit.ly/3nZQ6NO  

Las empresas de auditoría no deberían encubrir la inacción de las marcas mundiales frente a los salarios precarios (ES) http://bit.ly/3iuN0Ag  

Recuperar el espacio cívico: desafíos globales, respuestas locales (ES) http://bit.ly/38ZP14n  

Por qué el derecho de las mujeres a la salud y la igualdad de género son importantes para su empresa (ES) http://bit.ly/38Xx0nm   

‘Big Data’: ¿aliado o enemigo de los pequeños agricultores? (ES) http://bit.ly/3qCmjwp  

Kategorien: english, Ticker

Una declaración de apoyo a Beverly Longid, y a todos los defensores de los derechos humanos

CSO Partnership - 22. Januar 2021 - 7:11

Nosotros, los copresidentes de la Alianza de OSC para la Eficacia del Desarrollo, deseamos expresar nuestra solidaridad con nuestra copresidenta Beverly Longid, una destacada defensora de los derechos de Filipinas y también coordinadora mundial del Movimiento Internacional de los Pueblos Indígenas por la Autodeterminación y la Liberación.

Como plataforma mundial de la sociedad civil, trabajamos por el avance de los derechos humanos y las libertades civiles. Creemos en la defensa de los derechos de las personas a la libre expresión, la reunión pacífica, la asociación, la participación cívica y el diálogo social. Defendemos una sociedad civil empoderada, que pueda decir la verdad al poder y realizar los controles necesarios a los gobiernos y las empresas.

Estos pilares de las democracias deben ser protegidos en todo momento. Son los instrumentos del pueblo para luchar por su bienestar y sus intereses, y para buscar reparación contra la opresión y la explotación. Son la clave para alcanzar la justicia social y el verdadero desarrollo.

Lamentablemente, las libertades cívicas y la sociedad civil y las organizaciones populares han sido atacadas en todo el mundo, en lo que denominamos el patrón global de reducción del espacio cívico. Hemos seguido especialmente de cerca la situación en Filipinas, y los hechos revelan que los defensores de los derechos humanos en el país están siendo objeto de un ataque implacable e impune. Cientos de defensores de los derechos son acosados, encarcelados, secuestrados, torturados e incluso asesinados. A las organizaciones de la sociedad civil se les impide realizar su labor de incidencia mediante restricciones burocráticas. Nuestros colegas y socios están siendo etiquetados como terroristas por dedicar sus vidas al servicio de los marginados.

En el caso de Beverly, una de sus afiliaciones, la Alianza Popular de la Cordillera (CPA), junto con otras organizaciones progresistas, está siendo etiquetada como enemiga del Estado. Otros líderes de los pueblos indígenas del país también se enfrentan a amenazas de muerte: hay una orden de disparar a matar contra Windel Bolinget de la CPA, y justo antes de que acabara el año, nueve líderes Tumandok de Filipinas Central fueron asesinados.

Habiendo trabajado con muchos miembros de estas formaciones, en la AOED sabemos que son responsables de un trabajo legítimo e importante para la promoción de los derechos de los pueblos indígenas y de los derechos humanos, como las campañas en defensa de las tierras ancestrales, la autodeterminación, la protección del medio ambiente y la producción y el consumo sostenibles. Durante más de tres décadas, la CPA ha hecho campaña contra la minería a gran escala, la construcción de presas, la tala de árboles y la militarización, entre otras actividades que causaron un gran daño a sus comunidades. Los tumandoks asesinados se resistían a un megaproyecto de presa que destruirá sus hogares y sus medios de vida.

Los líderes y defensores de los PI merecen el apoyo y el reconocimiento del Estado, no la difamación ni el vilipendio. Denunciamos enérgicamente estos ataques a los derechos humanos bajo el gobierno del presidente filipino Rodrigo Duterte. Exigimos que se rindan cuentas por todos los delitos que se están cometiendo contra las libertades cívicas del pueblo.

El año pasado, lideramos a las organizaciones de la sociedad civil en la campaña Llamamiento a la Acción de Belgrado. Pedimos a los Estados miembros de las Naciones Unidas -entre los que se encuentra Filipinas- que actuaran para revertir el cierre y la reducción del espacio para la sociedad civil, para detener los ataques a los defensores de los derechos humanos y el debilitamiento de la participación democrática, y para renovar las perspectivas de una Agenda 2030 inclusiva, y la plena realización de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible.”

Seguimos manteniendo estos llamamientos, por Beverly Longid y el resto de nuestros aliados filipinos, así como por los defensores de los derechos humanos de todo el mundo. Alabamos su compromiso y les apoyamos en su lucha por una sociedad mejor para todos.

 

Firmado,

Marita González

Justin Kilcullen

Mónica Novillo

Richard Ssewakiryanga

 

Copresidentes de la AOED

Kategorien: english, Ticker

Development Cooperation News Roundup – 18-22 Jan 2021

CSO Partnership - 22. Januar 2021 - 5:42
Did you know?

A photo-essay presenting key milestones in the women’s rights movement, the progress and pushback, and voices and aspirations of women leaders from every corner of the world. http://bit.ly/35WGkG8  

Publications/Statements
  • CPDE Co-Chairs release a support statement for Co-Chair Beverly Longid, whose indigenous people’s organisation in the Philippines faces malicious attacks from the government, and is being tagged as enemies of the state: http://bit.ly/3qFQ8fB 
  • CPDE LAC’s DECA Equipo Pueblo hosts a press conference for Recovering and Strengthening Civic Spaces in Mexico – Our summary article of the event. EN http://bit.ly/3o0rxAj 
  • ‘Keeping Civic Space Healthy”: The International Center for Not-For-Profit Law (ICNL) 2019-2020 Annual Report is out! https://bit.ly/3sGwSQT 
  • The Arab Group for the Protection of Nature (APN),  as part of the CPDE working group on Conflict and Fragility, launched their research study on the reality of development work in Yemen: https://bit.ly/39QcQuv 
  • The European Center for Not-for-Profit Law (ECNL) has published the CSO Meter updates regarding civil society environment in the Eastern Partnership countries, featuring Armenia, Belarus, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Ukraine: https://csometer.info/ 

‘Racism and Institutionalised Discrimination in the Roll-Out of the COVID-19 Vaccine’. A Joint Statement from the Palestinian NGOs Network (PNGO), the Palestinian Human Rights Organisations Council (PHROC), and the Palestinian National Institute for NGOs (PNIN): http://bit.ly/3ism7Nk 

Online events Save the date!

Check your local time: https://www.thetimezoneconverter.com/   

  • From January 25 to 29, 2021, the Asia Pacific Research Network (APRN) holds its annual research conference on free trade agreements (FTAs) in Asia Pacific with the theme “Towards a Pro-People Economy and Trade Agenda”. Register for plenary sessions: bit.ly/aprnrcon2021 
  • The 7th Annual Symposium on the Role of Religion and Faith-Based Organisations in International Affairs will take place on January 26, 2020 from 8-12:30 EST. This year’s event is entitled “2021: A Defining Year for Accelerating Gender Equality, Equity and Justice.” Sign up: http://bit.ly/3ibPHXw 
  • On 26 January 2021 at 4PM Johannesburg/ 10PM Manila, CIVICUS holds a webinar entitled ‘Positive narratives of collective action’ – Sign up: http://bit.ly/3i6KqA8 
  • From January 23 to 31, the 2021 edition of the World Social Forum (WSF) will be held virtually. The WSF should be an open space for reflection, democratic debate of ideas, and articulation of effective actions by the entities and movements of civil society worldwide. Check-out their program and sign-up (EN/FR/SP/ARABIC/CHINESE +):  https://wsf2021.net/  
Watch!
  • Our colleagues from DECA, Equipo Pueblo, AC held a press conference on the National Campaign on Shrinking Civic Spaces in Mexico.  http://bit.ly/3qAPSOT 
  • Asia Pacific Solidarity Forum in support of farmers’ movement in India. http://bit.ly/2KwyqvJ 
  • International Center for Not-For-Profit Law (ICNL)’s webinar on ‘Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption for Inclusive Growth in the Middle East and North Africa’. http://bit.ly/3bUu2BP 
Call for projects/applications
  • The Western Balkan Fund launched an Open Call for Research Papers ‘Impact of COVID-19 on sustainability of Civil Society Organizations in the Western Balkan region’. Apply before February 7, 2021: https://bit.ly/3bxqyVF 
  • Youth activists are welcome to apply for the CIVICUS Youth Action Lab, a one year co-creation lab to support youth activists to be more resilient and sustainable in their work. Apply before February 1, 2021: https://shorturl.at/uwEZ2 
  • Youth in the Asia-Pacific region are welcome to submit their business proposal or innovative idea to improve the lives of migrants, displaced people and their host communities among the urban poor. Apply to the Youth Innovation for Human Mobility initiative to get support in developing your idea into a viable social enterprise. Apply before Feb 10, 2021: https://bit.ly/youth4humanmobility 
Good reads
Kategorien: english, Ticker

A statement of support for Beverly Longid, and all human rights defenders

CSO Partnership - 22. Januar 2021 - 5:39

We, the Co-chairs of CSO Partnership for Development Effectiveness, wish to express our solidarity with our co-chair Beverly Longid, a leading rights advocate from the Philippines and also the Global Coordinator of the International Indigenous People’s Movement for Self-Determination and Liberation.

As a global civil society platform, we work towards the advancement of human rights and civil liberties. We believe in upholding the people’s rights to free expression, peaceful assembly, association, civic participation and social dialogue. We stand for an empowered civil society, which can speak truth to power and perform the necessary checks for governments and corporations.

These pillars of democracies must be protected at all times. They are the people’s means to fight for their welfare and interests, and to seek redress against oppression and exploitation. They are key to the attainment of social justice and genuine development.

Sadly, civic freedoms and civil society and people’s organisations have been under attack around the world, in what we refer to as the global pattern of shrinking civic space. We have especially been closely monitoring the situation in the Philippines, and facts reveal that human rights defenders in the country are being targeted relentlessly and with impunity. Hundreds of rights advocates are being harassed, imprisoned, abducted, tortured, even murdered. Civil society organisations are being prevented from doing advocacy work through bureaucratic restrictions. Our colleagues and partners are being tagged as terrorists for devoting their lives in the service of the marginalised.

In Beverly’s case, one of her affiliations, the Cordillera People’s Alliance (CPA), along with other progressive organisations, is being tagged as an enemy of the state. Other indigenous people’s leaders in the country also face threats to their lives: there is a shoot-to-kill order on Windel Bolinget of CPA, and just before the year ended, nine Tumandok leaders in Central Philippines were killed.

Having worked with many members of these formations, we at CPDE know that they are responsible for legitimate and important work for the promotion of Indigenous Peoples rights and human rights, such as campaigns in defense of ancestral land, self-determination, environmental protection, and sustainable production and consumption. For over three decades, CPA has campaigned against large-scale mining, dam construction, logging, and militarization, among other activities that brought great harm to their communities. The murdered Tumandoks were resisting a mega-dam project that will destroy their homes and livelihood.

Indigenous People leaders and advocates deserve State support and recognition, not defamation or vilification. We strongly denounce these attacks on human rights under the rule of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte. We demand accountability for all the crimes being committed against the people’s civic freedoms.

Last year, we led civil society organisations in the Belgrade Call to Action campaign. We asked United Nations Member States – which include the Philippines – to act to reverse the closing and shrinking space for civil society, to stop the attacks on human rights defenders and the undermining of democratic participation, and to renew the prospects for an inclusive agenda 2030, and the full realisation of the Sustainable Development Goals.

We continue to uphold these calls, for Beverly Longid and the rest of our Filipino allies, as well as for the human rights defenders around the world. We laud their commitment and stand by them in their fight for a better society for all.

Signed,

Marita Gonzalez
Justin Kilcullen
Monica Novillo
Richard Ssewakiryanga

CPDE Co-Chairs

Kategorien: english, Ticker

Six ways to strengthen evidence to protect children on the move

ODI - 22. Januar 2021 - 0:00
A substantial gap persists around evidence to protect children on the move. Using a UN rapid review of 89 studies, here are six ways to close it.
Kategorien: english

Leave no one behind: Moving the agenda forward

ODI - 22. Januar 2021 - 0:00
This webinar examines how to move the 'Leave No One Behind' agenda forward.
Kategorien: english

Sustainable Development Spotlight: Can President Biden reengage on US global leadership?

Brookings - 21. Januar 2021 - 19:20

By George Ingram

       
Kategorien: english

The brave new world of 2021

Brookings - 21. Januar 2021 - 19:08

By Homi Kharas

In the novel “Brave New World,” Aldous Huxley writes: “Their world didn’t allow them … to be sane, virtuous, happy. … They were not conditioned to obey … what with all the diseases … uncertainties and poverty … they were forced to feel strongly … [so] how could they be stable?” He goes on to describe a world where peace and stability are achieved only through building a system in which human beings all behave the same, organized by an all-powerful nanny state.

Enter 2021. We will have our fill of diseases, uncertainties, and poverty in every country. We almost certainly need collaborative action to avoid traps on the path to sustainable development, but thankfully, we do not have to make all humans behave in the same way to achieve them.

Disease

Emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) are entering 2021 with a high level and steep rise in new COVID-19 cases per week. In summer 2020, EMDEs had appeared to reach a plateau of around 200,000 new cases per week, a level that was stable for about 4 months until November. Since then, the number of new cases per week has started to accelerate, has already roughly doubled, and shows no signs of stabilizing at a new plateau yet. COVAX, the international consortium making donor-funded vaccines available to developing countries, hopes to start its first shipments in the first quarter of 2021, and has set itself a target of delivering 2 billion doses during 2021, but it is still far short of being financially and technically able to meet this goal. On the disease front, 2021 may be more hopeful for many people in EMDEs who can start to see the endgame but will almost certainly be far worse in terms of outcomes—deaths, hospitalizations, and number of total cases—compared to 2020.

Uncertainties

Looking into the future is particularly difficult for 2021. For EMDEs, there is a range of commodity price uncertainties that are of first-order import for some countries and regions. The slowest rebounds in economic growth in 2021 are projected right now to be in commodity-exporting regions like Latin America, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa, but these countries could surprise if commodity prices were to strengthen.

A second major uncertainty is over debt and flows of capital. The worst fears of widespread debt defaults in 2020 did not come to pass. A combination of a moratorium for some countries, a drawdown of reserves for others, and the ability of still others to access capital markets, albeit paying higher risk premia, helped stave off the worst effects. But matters could deteriorate in 2021. There is over $100 billion in external debt service due from 61 countries who are likely to face serious financing difficulties. As we have shown in an earlier paper, at least half of this is owed by countries that need significant debt relief. Yet despite the lessons of history (negotiate haircuts, act with speed, treat all creditors fairly), there is nothing on the table to implement serious programs. Everyone seems to be against the current process of waiting for the proverbial shoe to drop, and then entering into protracted negotiations on a case-by-case basis where power and connections dictate what each creditor can extract. But bad as it is, this outcome seems preferable to the idea of a collective international effort to minimize the development damage.

Poverty

Global poverty numbers have become a headline, rather than a driver of change. The extraordinary turnaround from a world that was seeing annual reductions in poverty of 100 million people per year in 2013 to an increase in poverty of 100 million in 2020 has been almost totally disregarded. No new global programs have been put on the table, aid is at best holding steady, and conflict, climate change, political repression, and economic depressions are taking their toll.

Entering 2021, more autocratic states in East Asia are doing far better in protecting economic livelihoods than more individualistic and democratic states elsewhere. The shadow of 1984 is long.

Yet there are grounds for optimism.

The first is that agreement on the correct way forward has never been stronger. Deniers of the merits of sustainable development—in its full meaning of economic, social, and governance sustainability—are in retreat. Everyone, from governments at G-20, IMF, and U.N. meetings, to corporations at the World Economic Forum summit, to civil society advocates, agrees that sustainable development is the only path. It’s no coincidence that the Nobel Peace Prize in 2020 was awarded to the World Food Program, and that the Nobel Prize for economics went to Robert Wilson and Paul Milgrom for their work on auction theory that is the bedrock for the design of programs to allocate rights to emit greenhouse gases.

2021 could well go down as the year when the business community finally commits to sustainable development.

A second reason for optimism is technology. Bringing a vaccine to the market in under a year was an extraordinary feat only made possible by advances in science, artificial intelligence, and digitization. Government social assistance programs in response to COVID-19 may have benefited 1.8 billion people in 2020, with 1.1 billion new recipients being registered. Along with colleagues at Brookings and the Japan International Cooperation Agency Ogata Research Institute, I am co-editing a collection of wonderful expert contributions on new breakthroughs to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, a topic which has gone from anecdotal to extensive in just a few years. The range and ambition of these breakthroughs, the science as well as the applications, is immense.

2021 could be the year when we see major technological breakthroughs either happening or likely to happen in the not-too-far-distant future.

My friend Paul O’Brien has a new book in which he quotes Thomas Friedman as saying “pessimists are usually right and optimists are usually wrong, but all the great changes have been accomplished by optimists.” Let’s all be optimists in 2021.

       
Kategorien: english

How we win #108

Tax Justice Network - 21. Januar 2021 - 18:15

This month Naomi Fowler speaks to activist and writer Ben Phillips about how past struggles for justice were won and how we can win them again. We discuss valuable lessons he learned from living and working around the world which he writes about in his book How To Fight Inequality and why that fight needs you. https://uk.bookshop.org/books/how-to-fight-inequality-and-why-that-fight-needs-you/9781509543090

Plus: Why is the Chinese economy so successful? Naomi discusses with John Christensen the rise of China and, unless they chuck shareholder capitalism, the continuing demise of the US and the UK.

https://www.thetaxcast.com

Kategorien: english

A Violent and Fraught Election in Uganda Leaves Challenger Bobi Wine Under House Arrest

UN Dispatch - 21. Januar 2021 - 17:17

On January 14th, Uganda held national elections for president and parliament. The incumbent was the 76-year-old Yoweri Museveni, who has ruled Uganda since 1986. His main challenger was a 38-year-old music star turned politician who goes by the stage name Bobi Wine.

In the 6 days between the election and the time I’m recording this, Yoweri Museveni has declared victory and his security forces are laying siege to Bobi Wine and his family, having encircled his compound and placing them under de-facto house arrest.

International observers were largely blocked from Uganda during the election and the internet was cut throughout the country on election day. Needless to say, the election results lack a degree of credibility.

On the line to help me understand the current state of play of the fraught election and its aftermath in Uganda is Rosebell Kagumire. She is a writer and editor at a the publication African Feminism and I caught up with her from Kampala, Uganda.

We kick off with a brief discussion of the current state of play of the volatile situation in Uganda. She then discusses how the unique biography of Bobi Wine makes him such a compelling figure to challenge the decades long hold on power of Museveni and the ruling class. We also discuss how international pressure may be required to hold Museveni to democratic norms.

We are discussing a rapidly evolving situation, but this episode will give you some of the context you need to understand events in Uganda as they unfold.

Get the podcast to listen later Apple Podcasts  | Google Podcasts |  Spotify  |  Stitcher  | Radio Public

The post A Violent and Fraught Election in Uganda Leaves Challenger Bobi Wine Under House Arrest appeared first on UN Dispatch.

Kategorien: english

Migration is a force for development (and vice versa): it’s time we tell this story right

OECD - 21. Januar 2021 - 15:42
By Gonzalo Fanjul, Co-founder and Head of Research at por Causa Foundation There is a dangerous contradiction in the prevailing narrative on migration and development. Despite the fact that international labour mobility has proven to be one of the most effective and powerful levers for individual and collective progress, many development co-operation actors treat migration … Continue reading Migration is a force for development (and vice versa): it’s time we tell this story right
Kategorien: english

The Great Reset: Relaunching African economies

Brookings - 21. Januar 2021 - 15:00

By Acha Leke, Landry Signé, Vera Songwe

The Great Reset: Relaunching African economies Foresight AfricaReport 2021
  • Chapter 01
01

The Great Reset

Relaunching African economies

02

Support for public health

Preparing for the next pandemic

03

Human development

Protecting vulnerable populations

04

Private sector leadership

Building African businesses and creating jobs

05

Continental integration

Uniting a revitalized Africa

06

Good governance

Building trust between people and their leaders

Chapter 01 The Great Reset: Relaunching African economies Download chapter 1 January 2021 Emerging stronger: How Africa’s policymakers can bolster their economies during and beyond the COVID-19 crisis Acha Leke

Senior Partner and Chairman, Africa Region; McKinsey & Company

Landry Signé

Senior Fellow, Africa Growth Initiative, Brookings Institution

Vera Songwe

Under-Secretary-General, United Nations
Executive Secretary, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Nonresident Senior Fellow, Africa Growth Initiative, Brookings Institution

As the world begins to emerge from the economic crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic, the big question in Africa—beyond how do we protect the health of average citizens—in 2021 is how and when Africa will begin its exit from the first economic recession to hit the continent in a quarter of a century. Africa’s economic revival depends on sufficient economic policy response, access to sufficient and affordable financing to recover from the estimated 3 to 5.4 percent contraction in GDP, and strengthened policies for creating jobs. Indeed, Africa’s longer-term economic prospects can be safeguarded by making bold and well-informed decisions today, which, in turn, can transform the current crisis into a catalyst for innovation.

Immediate steps for policymakers

African governments have already spent significant amounts of their GDP on domestic stimulus packages—between 1 and 7 percent. However, the funds made available among African nations for response and recovery are less than 1 percent of the amount deployed among the world’s richest nations. Indeed, under current conditions, sub-Saharan Africa may likely face a financing gap of about $290 billion.

To enable a strong recovery, African policymakers would do well to step up efforts to “stem the bleeding.” By investing strongly and promptly to relaunch economies, governments can avoid an even deeper descent, potentially including debt crises, defaults, and a return to pre-COVID-19 economic levels only by 2030.

How might leaders and policymakers pay for it?

Given the serious fiscal constraints that many African governments face, policymakers need to prioritize where and how to intervene as well as find new ways to attract investment and private-sector participation to deliver critical projects and services. Just as important, emerging opportunities in digitization and data analytics are already improving revenue collection. Now might also be the time to use spending reviews to reallocate budgets to high-priority areas, deliver more cost-effective procurement, and reduce fraud. Across Africa, such public-finance reforms could deliver as much as $100 billion a year in new revenues and savings.

“Bold efforts to mobilize domestic resources can yield rapid results.”

Bold efforts to mobilize domestic resources can yield rapid results. For example, one of the authors worked with a West African country that was able to boost tax and customs revenues by more than 20 percent in just six months. The country rebuilt its customs processes, greatly improving compliance; and it established a debt-collection task force that increased debt recovery from defaulting taxpayers by a factor of five.

That said, African policymakers will also need to redouble their efforts to enlist the global community’s support to strengthen liquidity in the short term and restart growth in the longer term. In the next 3 to 6 months, policymakers should seek increased lending from multilateral development banks; these institutions could potentially use their existing balance sheets to release an additional $100 billion in lending to Africa. Global institutions can also set up a Liquidity and Sustainability Facility (LSF) that would lower governments’ borrowing costs by ensuring that their short-term debt obligations can be met. Such measures would pave the way for the global community to assist African policymakers in restarting and reimagining sustainable growth—for example, by introducing innovative financing tools such as bonds linked to the pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Policies for supporting MSMEs must be central to the recovery

At the same time, policymakers must continue to support businesses—both smaller enterprises and larger firms—that have been disrupted by the crisis. Arguably, the greatest priority must be to bolster the micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) that are key to African commerce and account for 83 percent of private-sector employment in Africa.[Findings from a recent collaborative study between AUDA-NEPAD (the African Union Development Agency), Ecobank, and McKinsey & Company (unpublished).] Such businesses, which number between 85 million to 95 million, are especially vulnerable to COVID-19 mitigation measures given they are often characterized by person-to-person contact. By just May 2020, 75 percent saw their revenue decline by over 30 percent.

There are several steps that governments can take to provide financial support to MSMEs. One option is to assist MSMEs through larger firms in their value chains, which might include upstream suppliers and downstream buyers. Governments can provide easier liquidity and working-capital terms to these larger players, and they can make such support conditional upon these firms’ providing favorable financial terms to MSMEs. Governments can also consider providing risk guarantees or first-loss mechanisms while requiring banks to on-lend under the chosen set of criteria and guidelines in order to encourage banks to lend to MSMEs.

To bolster large firms, governments can consider two approaches. First, in a few situations, countries may designate certain sectors as “strategic” and develop support packages—potentially including short-term loans, payroll support, and debt-to-equity swaps. In Nigeria, for example, the government has designated key agricultural value chains and the cement industry as strategic; in addition, their broader economic relevance, those sectors are particularly important in the country’s drive to substitute imports. In addition, governments can help a broader set of companies conserve cash and survive the crisis. Options in this regard include lowering the liquidity or capital-ratio requirements of banks assisting companies in raising capital through avenues such as private-equity financing, as well as deferring payments due by companies to public-sector entities. Governments might require companies to maintain a minimum wage or payroll to qualify for such support.

Understanding Africa’s economic challenges in and beyond the crisis

Finance will continue to be one of the greatest needs for African businesses; indeed, only 5 percent of MSMEs across the continent feel they have received adequate support from lenders.[Findings from a recent collaborative study between AUDA-NEPAD (the African Union Development Agency), Ecobank, and McKinsey & Company (unpublished).] Provided governments navigate Africa’s fiscal challenges with skill and determination, they can continue offering suitable financial support to small enterprises; in addition to indirect support through value chains and banks, such assistance might include loans, debt forgiveness, low interest rates, assistance with payments to suppliers, and reduction in utility costs. At the same time, policymakers must not lose sight of the region’s informal sector, as 84 percent of African MSMEs are unregistered. Policymakers can take advantage of the opportunity created by the crisis to convince larger numbers of informal enterprises to register, and thus gain better access to finance and markets. Moreover, to promote registration, governments could shape bold campaigns and attractive packages, potentially including multi-year tax holidays and capacity building for MSMEs.

“Instead of attempting to resuscitate all hard-hit sectors, governments would do well to prioritize sectors that can offer services and goods with long-term prospects—and that have true potential for value-creation and employment at scale.”

Governments will also need to make careful decisions about which sectors to prioritize. Instead of attempting to resuscitate all hard-hit sectors, governments would do well to prioritize sectors that can offer services and goods with long-term prospects—and that have true potential for value-creation and employment at scale.

Moreover, mitigating the economic impact of COVID-19 across the continent will require tracking and forecasting the social and political changes that the pandemic has caused, especially as COVID-19 crisis has exacerbated economic hardship and may push up to 40 million Africans into extreme poverty. Policymakers will also need to focus on enabling businesses to respond effectively to these new conditions. In doing so, they would do well to focus on new and existing industries that enjoy high economic potential and a competitive advantage, rather than those that face falling demand, or have been overtaken by businesses enjoying more favorable conditions in other regions.

Technology and the African Continental Free Trade Agreement already show promise for supporting the bounce back

Digital transformation is arguably Africa’s biggest opportunity arising from the crisis. During the pandemic, the continent has accelerated its adoption of ICTs: lockdown conditions have pushed many sectors to raise their online presence and expand their range of digital services, with developments that would ordinarily take years compressed into several months. Significant opportunities remain for digital acceleration in key sectors, particularly government, education, retail trade, and finance (see Figure 2).

Thus, COVID-19 has revealed, more acutely than ever, that leaders should prioritize scaling up investments in the physical and technological infrastructure needed to bring Africa more securely into the digital age and boost the training infrastructure needed to equip the workforce with basic and advanced digital skills, from mobile transactions to graphic design and coding. Leaders can encourage digital practices on the small-scale too in order to encourage widespread usage of digital tools: For example, Kenya and Rwanda have lowered transaction charges in digital payments, thus boosting adoption. Ethiopia recently approved the e-Transactions proclamation, granting legal status to electronic messages and documents.


The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), which also holds promise for accelerating the region’s economies through economic integration and a shift in focus toward high-productivity industrial activities, commenced trading on January 1, 2021. With the increased ease of intra-African trade, African businesses will be empowered to transform continent-wide needs into opportunities for entrepreneurship. (For more on the AfCFTA, see Chapter 4.)

Good, transparent governance cannot be neglected

In this time of crisis, effective and efficient policy implementation at all levels is more important than ever. Governments will need to ensure that support programs are relevant, and that their costs do not outweigh their benefits. Such programs must be accessible, speedily implemented, and scalable. They must be run transparently, under appropriate rules, and managed without conflicts of interest. A key step to improve governance will be to forge a stronger social contract between citizens and the public sector across Africa—around service delivery, transparency, and social protections. (For more on efforts to improve governance in the region, see Chapter 6.) A number of African countries have already committed themselves to enhanced governance over COVID-19-related spending: For example, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Kenya, São Tomé and Príncipe, South Africa, and Uganda have all undertaken independent audits of such spending and published the related procurement contracts.

“A key step to improve governance will be to forge a stronger social contract between citizens and the public sector across Africa—around service delivery, transparency, and social protections.”

Conclusion

The path to more robust and resilient African economies will be a challenging one, calling for boldness, imagination, and tenacious implementation on the part of policymakers. Indeed, a sustained recovery will demand extraordinary effort from public-sector leaders to reimagine policies and practices in rapidly changing circumstances. African governments would do well to focus on profound challenges such as lack of financing – including among informal businesses – and to support promising sectors in order to kickstart and sustain an economic revival. Moreover, leaders should focus on policies and decisions that can have long-lasting impacts, especially around technological adoption and effective implementation of the AfCFTA.

Endnotes
  1. 1. Findings from a recent collaborative study between AUDA-NEPAD (the African Union Development Agency), Ecobank, and McKinsey & Company (unpublished).
  2. 2. Findings from a recent collaborative study between AUDA-NEPAD (the African Union Development Agency), Ecobank, and McKinsey & Company (unpublished).
Next Chapter

02 | Support for public health Preparing for the next pandemic

Related Africa in Focus Join the conversation on the top priorities for Africa in 2021 © 2021 The Brookings Institution        
Kategorien: english

Support for public health: Preparing for the next pandemic

Brookings - 21. Januar 2021 - 14:50

By John Nkengasong

Support for public health: Preparing for the next pandemic Foresight AfricaReport 2021
  • Chapter 02
01

The Great Reset

Relaunching African economies

02

Support for public health

Preparing for the next pandemic

03

Human development

Protecting vulnerable populations

04

Private sector leadership

Building African businesses and creating jobs

05

Continental integration

Uniting a revitalized Africa

06

Good governance

Building trust between people and their leaders

Chapter 02 Support for public health: Preparing for the next pandemic Download chapter 2 January 2021 Building a new public health order for Africa—and a new approach to financing it John Nkengasong

Director, Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

In the early autumn of 2020, Africa received positive press about its response to the SARS-CoV-2 (also known as COVID-19) pandemic. Given the fragility of many of the continent’s health systems, many had initially feared that the impact of SARS-CoV-2 would be devastating. Indeed, Africa has the largest burden of endemic diseases in the world, and SARS-CoV-2 could abolish decades of progress in the fight against these diseases by disrupting health care provision and access to medications. In addition, as the world races for access to critical diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, and vaccines, protectionism rises. With limited local manufacturing capacity, Africa is particularly vulnerable to such dynamics.

Thankfully, as of this fall, Africa had counted just about 1.5 million cases and 40,000 deaths—far, far fewer than other, often richer, regions of the world. Public health experts largely attributed Africa’s success so far to favorable socio-economic, demographic, and environmental factors, but also to rapid and determined political action. Indeed, many African countries were quick to introduce containment measures, such as lockdowns. The continent has also approached the crisis largely as a bloc: Even before the first case was confirmed in sub-Saharan Africa, the health ministers of the member states of the African Union held an emergency meeting to prepare for the pandemic and, fewer than six weeks after the first reported case on the African continent in Egypt on February 14, released the Joint Africa Continental Strategy on COVID-19.

The African approach has been anchored in collaboration and solidarity. Successes include the Partnership to Accelerate COVID-19 Testing (PACT), launched by the African Union Commission (AUC) and the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC) in April 2020, which enabled Africa, initially shoved aside when global demand for diagnostics rose, to increase the number of countries with testing capacity from two to 43 in three months, procure more than 90 million test kits, and train thousands of lab workers. Similarly, a shared effort among the AU, Africa CDC, UNECA, and the African Export-Import Bank to create the Africa Medical Supplies Platform led to pooled procurement of critical medical supplies, increasing countries’ access to vital personal protective equipment regardless of the size of their market. The most recent example is the Trusted Travel Platform launched by AUC and Africa CDC in October 2020. The platform includes information on the latest travel restrictions and entry requirements and simplified health-related immigration processing for travellers and port officials, which will protect lives and livelihoods and help prepare for the implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA).

“The African approach to COVID-19 has been anchored in collaboration and solidarity.”

However, if we only look at SARS-CoV-2-related morbidity and mortality, we miss a large part of the pandemic’s impact and of the underlying vulnerabilities it exposes. To address this multidimensional threat, Africa requires a new public health order, including:

1. A strengthened Africa CDC and national public health institutions (NPHIs). Africa CDC, through its Secretariat and Regional Collaborating Centers, provides national NPHIs with guidance on priorities and programs, integrates efforts, and drives standard-setting and surveillance.

2. Local production of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics that contributes to supply security, drives down procurement costs, and increases the speed of response to a local threat. Such initiatives should be driven by strong private sector partners, with public support for the required capability building and other enablers, but also for the negotiation of contracts that are sufficiently large and long-term for the initiative to attract the required funding. An example of such a public-private partnership is the South African Biovac Institute.

3. Investment in public health workforce and leadership programs. A sufficiently large, well-prepared health workforce is key to any of the activities mentioned above. But the gaps are significant. For example, Africa requires 25,000 frontline epidemiologists and has about 5,000.

4. Action-oriented partnerships—including between the public and private sector, donors and governments, and with public health institutions. Respectful partnerships are those that respect African-originated and defined health priorities and solutions and ensure health programs are aligned with continental priorities such as the Agenda 2063.

This new public health order requires more predictable, long-term funding overall, joint priority setting, and stronger mechanisms to manage the allocation of funds in line with continental aspirations.

Funding in the tens of billions of dollars is required to train the nurses, physicians, and other cadres needed to close the gap in the availability of trained health care professionals predicted for 2030 and create programs for public health policy professionals. Such programs must include support to public health professionals looking to gain additional degrees in health policy, but also opportunities to get exposed to public health policy work in national and international organizations. Beyond training, a better equipped medical system requires local manufacturing capacity, which, in turn, needs significant upfront investment. Laboratories, regulatory capacity, medical materials, and mechanical components for medical tools all require funding.

First and foremost, funding for public health in Africa is the responsibility of the continent’s political leadership. In the 2001 Abuja Declaration, African governments committed at least 15 percent of their annual budgets to health. Since then, only a handful of countries have reached this goal, and overall funding has been inconsistent at best. Policymakers must (re-)prioritize health to consistently reach the commitment of the Abuja Declaration. Second, donor contributions are highly relevant, much appreciated, and will remain key in the foreseeable future. To be effective, these funds need to be in line with national, regional, and continental public health priorities. They should also, where possible, take the form of co-financing to increase sustainability and contribute to the strengthening of public health institutions. Third, the private sector is an important contributor, e.g., through public-private partnerships (PPPs), as a provider of low-cost, for-profit services and expertise for newer areas, such as telehealth.

Investments in a new public health order pay off. Although estimates differ, there is widespread agreement that the return on investment in health is significant. The McKinsey Global Institute’s recent estimate is one of the more conservative and expects a return of 2:1 to 4:1—an estimate that goes beyond money and includes fewer premature deaths, fewer poor health conditions, and extended participation in the labor market—all of which are valid goals in their own right.

Next Chapter

03 | Human development Protecting vulnerable populations

Related Africa in Focus Join the conversation on the top priorities for Africa in 2021 © 2021 The Brookings Institution        
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