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COVID-19: super-accelerator or game-changer for international (development) co-operation?

GDI Briefing - 6. Juli 2020 - 11:34

The outbreak of COVID-19 as a global health emergency and the resulting socio-economic crisis is testing global structures of co-operation. The challenges are giving rise to new forms and expressions of transnational solidarity.

Kategorien: english

Corona und die SDGs: Folgen der COVID-19 Pandemie für die Verwirklichung der globalen Nachhaltigkeitsziele (Stand Juli 2020)

Global Policy Forum - 6. Juli 2020 - 10:49

Die COVID-19-Pandemie und die politischen Maßnahmen, mit denen die Regierungen auf sie reagierten, haben gravierende Folgen für die globale Nachhaltigkeitsagenda. Auch wenn sich das ganze Ausmaß der Krise und ihrer Auswirkungen derzeit noch nicht abschätzen lässt, droht schon jetzt die Gefahr, dass die Pandemie die Verwirklichung der international vereinbarten Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung (SDGs) in ihrer Gesamtheit gefährdet. Das neue Briefing des Global Policy Forums skizziert für jedes der 17 SDGs anhand einiger punktueller Beispiele, welches Ausmaß die globale Coronakrise in verschiedenen Sektoren haben kann. Es macht deutlich, dass die Agenda 2030 und ihre Nachhaltigkeitsziele scheitern werden, wenn sie in den politischen Antworten auf die Coronakrise nicht systematisch berücksichtigt werden.

Kategorien: english, Ticker

“Governance is fundamental”

D+C - 6. Juli 2020 - 9:41
UNDP chief explains how the concepts of “human development” and “sustainable development” are converging

When the UNDP launched the Human Development Index (HDI) in 1990, the guiding idea was to empower people to take their fates into their own hands. Do I remember that correctly?
Yes, but that was not the singular motivation. The Human Development Index introduced a broader approach to advance human wellbeing termed the human development approach. This methodology is about expanding the richness of human life, rather than simply the richness of the economy in which human beings live. The index was a response to the dominant paradigm back then – that is, powerful institutions were simply equating development with economic growth and rising per-capita incomes. That was the era of structural adjustment and the Washington Consensus, both of which were entirely geared towards market dynamics. Human wellbeing did not get much attention. On behalf of the UNDP, Amartya Sen and Mahbub ul Haq, two prominent economists, designed the HDI in a way that took into account important other components that were overlooked – especially education and health outcomes. Both elements are extremely important to a person’s wellbeing. It is critical to measure a country’s progress in these areas to see where there are gaps and address them – to ensure that people can indeed reach their full potential.

Has the HDI changed the development paradigm?
Yes, in many ways the HDI has become mainstream. Consider, for example, the fact that the World Bank launched its own Human Capital Index in 2018, which aims to measure progress in some of the same areas. However, the debate does not stand still, and we strive to improve the concept accordingly. We are now focusing more and more on inequality. Last year’s Human Development Report showed, for example, that more equal societies often outperform more unequal societies. That is true in spite of lower per-capita incomes. For the first time, this year’s report will include an assessment of how inequality and environmental problems are intrinsically linked. It is critical to better understand how issues like pollution or the destruction of ecosystems hurt poor people much more than rich people – and design ways to address this imbalance.

Is human development ultimately the same as sustainable development?
The two concepts are certainly converging, but they have a different history. Human development is more squarely focused on human beings. It was conceived to counter an understanding of development that purely took economic indicators into account. The concept of sustainable development was formulated for different reasons. It was adopted by the UN at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 after many years of debate. The fundamental idea is that future generations must enjoy the same opportunities as people do today. One implication of this is the principle that business activity must not damage or destroy the natural environment. However, global warming and the loss of ecosystems and biodiversity is quite obviously harming the outlook for future generations. The Earth Summit also emphasised that the rich regions of the world cannot prosper at the expense of disadvantaged regions. Every human being deserves the same opportunities in life. The three pillars of sustainability, as understood in Rio – social inclusion, environmental protection and the long-term viability of businesses – remain critically important today.

A core element of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the principle to “leave no one behind”. Does it make sense to trace the SDGs back to the Earth Summit?
Yes, and we can trace their germination back to previous international debates as well. The UN has a long history of thought leadership in these matters. The Brundtland Commission was very important in the late 1980s, as was the Brandt Commission in the early 1980s.

To what extent is improved governance – at national as well as global levels – essential to achieving the SDGs?
Governance is absolutely fundamental. It is about how we interact with one another. It is about fairness, rule of law, values and so on. The rights of individual persons depend on governance. That also applies to the rights of minorities and other vulnerable groups. However, it is difficult to measure the quality of governance, not least because there are ideological differences. Nonetheless, the SDGs reflect a multilateral consensus. By using them as the yardstick, there is actually some scope to measure how effective countries’ governance systems are. Apart from governments, many other actors have to play their part in governance, of course – from the private-sector to civil-society organisations or research institutes. Governance is about more than just government action, and that is especially true at the global level. We do not have a “world government”, but we do have governance systems that regulate many important things from telecoms and postal services to trade and maritime safety. The Covid-19 pandemic proves once again how important global governance is. Unless we work together to contain the virus everywhere, it is liable to re-emerge and spread rapidly again. Indeed, an economic slowdown in one part of the world will have a major knock-on effect and hurt other regions of the world. If we want the world economy to recover, we will need stimulus programmes for every country – not only the prosperous ones.

Is the global governance system up to task?
Let me say first that the system is remarkably strong. Don’t forget that its institutions were largely built during the Cold War. In spite of that era’s fundamental tensions, multilateral institutions grew, and today, they are managing important tasks quite successfully. It is true, however, that the multilateral system faces considerable constraints. It is somewhat remarkable to consider that the budget of the UN Secretary-General is about the same size as the budget of the New York City Fire Department. It is hard to deny that the multilateral system is underfunded. The UN Security Council should have been reformed many years ago for its membership to better reflect current power relations. Moreover, we need increased respect for international law. Indeed, a renewed commitment to global governance would be a welcome development.

But many governments now emphasise sovereignty and want to put their nations’ interests first.
Well, it is a false dichotomy to try to choose between global governance and sovereignty. Global governance benefits all nations – and it does not require a country to surrender sovereignty. On the contrary, global governance results from sovereign countries joining forces to rise to challenges together. The plain truth is that countries can only achieve certain objectives through cooperation – aims which are impossible if they go alone. Indeed, the great challenges that humankind now faces, exceed the capacities of every single nation state. Most notably, no country can manage the climate crisis on its own. And world trade and the global financial architecture require cooperation. The rapid spread of Covid-19 and its lack of respect for borders is a stark reminder of this fact. Crises will keep getting worse unless we can rely on strong, respected and effective global institutions.

I’d like to return to where we started. It seems to me that the paradigm that equates growth with development is still quite strong. To some extent, it even marks the SDGs which emphasise the importance of private-sector businesses and market dynamics. Does that not fly in the face of human development?
No, not really. It is another fallacy to believe that we must choose between economic prosperity and environmental sustainability. That is something the experts agree on. Economies can – and must – develop further without destroying the environment. Germany is actually a good example of development that is not purely linked to economic growth but rather, it is about fostering green growth and sustainable development. The country’s performance in the past ten years or so has been good. There was full employment before the Covid-19 crisis began, but the growth rate was actually very disappointing in comparison with previous decades. The more an economy matures, the less important growth becomes. Nonetheless, many policymakers in all countries, are stuck in the old growth mindset. Too many finance ministries around the world still do not have an office or at least an expert team to assess environmental sustainability issues. Once again, more, not less cooperation in this area, is the best way to make progress.

Some critics say that the entire notion of development is toxic because former colonial powers are imposing their will on the rest of the world. They say humankind needs a fundamental “restart”. What is your response?
I think that this is a mostly hypothetical reasoning without much relevance to what happens next in our world. Throughout history, different cultures have interacted with one another. There was a constant exchange leading to both opportunities and risks. It is impossible to go back in history and start from scratch. We must work together to meet the challenges that our species is collectively facing right now – most notably climate change.

Achim Steiner is the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Kategorien: english

Reliable and forward-looking: GIZ provides effective support in the Corona crisis

GIZ Germany - 6. Juli 2020 - 7:51
: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 HH:mm:ss
Annual press conference: Business volume rises to EUR 3.1 billion in 2019
Kategorien: english

Ingrid-Gabriela Hoven is GIZ’s new managing director

GIZ Germany - 6. Juli 2020 - 7:51
: Tue, 30 Jun 2020 HH:mm:ss
The development expert will start work on 1 October 2020.
Kategorien: english

Climate and Environmental Report: sustainable mobility is crucial

GIZ Germany - 6. Juli 2020 - 7:51
: Fri, 13 Mar 2020 HH:mm:ss
On the road to climate neutrality in 2020: business trips are the biggest contributing factor to greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore offer the greatest potential for savings.
Kategorien: english

Participatory scenario planning in times of uncertainty: five key lessons

ODI - 6. Juli 2020 - 0:00
Five takeaways about constructing participatory scenarios for adaptive programmes.
Kategorien: english

Join the Global Reset Dialogue

ODI - 6. Juli 2020 - 0:00
Join the conversation as thought leaders around the world share their views on how to build a more equal and sustainable world beyond Covid-19.
Kategorien: english

HLPF 2020 Alternative VNR Reports by Our Members

Women - 5. Juli 2020 - 20:37


Similar to previous years, the Women’s Major Group’s members throughout the World, have prepared Alternative / Shadow Reports for their countries’ Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs). The list of HLPF 2020’s VNR countries can be found here.

In fact, developing a shadow report can be a powerful tool in any case. It provides a platform to work across civil society organizations, creates opportunities to engage with your government, helps determine a baseline to measure change over time, generates information and analysis to use in advocacy and media work, and helps to identify gaps and deficiencies in government policies and programs. If you are engaged in other types of international reporting, such as reporting to the CEDAW Committee, you may be able to use information and analysis from one shadow report to support another.” – WMG’s Engaging with the National Voluntary Review Process


Alliance of Civil Society Organizations of Argentina’s Report (English)

Alliance of Civil Society Organizations of Argentina’s Report (Spanish)


Right Here, Right Now Coalition (YUWA)’s Report (English)



The post HLPF 2020 Alternative VNR Reports by Our Members appeared first on Women's Major Group.

Kategorien: english

‘Stay the course together to emerge stronger’ from COVID-19 crisis: UN chief’s message to major sustainability forum

UN #SDG News - 5. Juli 2020 - 17:00
As a major United Nations forum prepares to assess progress towards a fairer future for people and the planet, UN Secretary-General António Guterres has warned that each of the Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, is being impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Kategorien: english

Towards greening trade? Environmental provisions in emerging markets’ preferential trade agreements

GDI Briefing - 5. Juli 2020 - 11:29

This chapter focuses on the linkage between economic and environmental governance by tracking environmental provisions in preferential trade agreements (PTAs). While the USA and the European Union are frequently seen as innovators of ‘green’ content in PTAs, systematic research on the role of emerging markets in promoting this development is scarce. For this reason, we develop an original, detailed data set mapping the environmental content in 48 PTAs signed by the emerging markets China, India, Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico. Our findings clearly indicate a trend towards more environmental content in those countries’ PTAs over time. At the same time, the data hint at patterns that suggest that these developments may at least be partly driven by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The chapter contributes to the literature on the design of PTAs, the linkage between trade and environment, as well as the role of emerging markets in global governance.

Kategorien: english

Corona und die SDGs: Folgen der COVID-19 Pandemie für die Verwirklichung der globalen Nachhaltigkeitsziele

Global Policy Forum - 5. Juli 2020 - 7:00

Die COVID-19-Pandemie und die politischen Maßnahmen, mit denen die Regierungen auf sie reagierten, haben gravierende Folgen für die globale Nachhaltigkeitsagenda. Auch wenn sich das ganze Ausmaß der Krise und ihrer Auswirkungen derzeit noch nicht abschätzen lässt, droht schon jetzt die Gefahr, dass die Pandemie die Verwirklichung der international vereinbarten Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung (SDGs) in ihrer Gesamtheit gefährdet. Das neue Briefing des Global Policy Forums skizziert für jedes der 17 SDGs anhand einiger punktueller Beispiele, welches Ausmaß die globale Coronakrise in verschiedenen Sektoren haben kann. Es macht deutlich, dass die Agenda 2030 und ihre Nachhaltigkeitsziele scheitern werden, wenn sie in den politischen Antworten auf die Coronakrise nicht systematisch berücksichtigt werden.

Kategorien: english, Ticker

The changing landscape of sustainability standards in Indonesia: potentials and pitfalls of making global value chains more sustainable

GDI Briefing - 4. Juli 2020 - 11:41

This chapter investigates the changing landscape of voluntary sustainability standards in Indonesia and discusses potential trade-offs between the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development in the context of smallholder certification in the palm oil sector. On the one hand, there is a concern that sustainability standards might weaken the socio-economic situation of smallholders by preventing them from having access to global value chains and markets that demand certification. On the other hand, whereas certification can give rise to socio-economic benefits for smallholders taking part in certification schemes, these benefits may have undesirable consequences for environmental sustainability. The chapter studies these trade-offs and discusses how the synergies between economic, environmental and social sustainability can be promoted.

Kategorien: english

Business sector still far from reaching sustainability goals, UN report shows, 20 years on from landmark summit

UN #SDG News - 4. Juli 2020 - 6:20
A new UN report on tbe private sector, released by UN Global Compact, shows that progress on bringing about a sustainable future for people and the planet is patchy, and the majority of companies involved in the Compact, are not doing enough to help bring about the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Kategorien: english

Business sector still far from reaching sustainability goals, UN report shows, 20 years on from landmark summit

UN ECOSOC - 4. Juli 2020 - 6:20
A new UN report on tbe private sector, release by UN Global Compact, shows that progress on bringing about about a sustainable future for people and the planet is patchy, and the majority of companies involved in the Compact, are not doing enough to help bring about the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Kategorien: english

Unlocking entrepreneurship opportunities for youth could lower unemployment and bring social benefits - 3. Juli 2020 - 12:31
UN report finds youth social entrepreneurship can create jobs and help the most underserved communities

The World Youth Report: Youth Social Entrepreneurship and the 2030 Agenda seeks to contribute to the understanding of how youth social entrepreneurship can both support youth development and help accelerate the implementation of the SDGs. To do so, the Report first synthesizes the current discussion on social entrepreneurship and anchors it in the context of the 2030 Agenda. Chapter 2 of the Report then turns toward the situation of youth and examines weather youth social entrepreneurship can offer not only employment opportunities, but also support other elements of youth development such as youth participation.  In the third chapter, the Report assesses the potential and the challenges of youth social entrepreneurship as a tool supporting the 2030 Agenda and youth development in its broadest sense. Finally, chapter 4 first examines how new technologies can be leveraged to address some challenges faced by young social entrepreneurs as well as further support youth social entrepreneurship in its efforts to advance sustainable development. This last chapter finally offers policy guidance to build enabling, responsive and sustainable national ecosystems for young social entrepreneurs.

Tearing down barriers that prevent more young people from becoming successful social entrepreneurs will contribute to advancing the Sustainable Development Goals and tackling the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19, according to a new report released today by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

The report calls on governments and other decision-makers to remove obstacles to youth social entrepreneurship, such as access to start-up funds that are presently limiting the ability of young people to engage in profitable activities. Many regulatory systems often prevent — sometimes involuntarily — young people from accessing financial products and services needed to start an enterprise. And a lack of access to training, technical support, networks and markets are also discouraging the growth of youth social enterprises.

The 2020 World Youth Report “Youth Social Entrepreneurship and the 2030 Agenda,” defines social entrepreneurship as businesses that generate profits while seeking to generate social impacts.

Unemployment among the world’s 1.2 billion young people is far higher than for adults and COVID-19 has worsened their outlook for job prospects. Estimates dating from before the pandemic suggest that 600 million jobs would have to be created in the next 15 years to meet youth employment needs.

The economic impact of COVID-19 is set to make the job market more challenging for youth. The ILO reports that in the first quarter of 2020, about 5.4 per cent of global working hours, that is equivalent to 155 million full-time job, were lost relative to the fourth quarter of 2019.

Social entrepreneurship can provide a viable path forward for young people to earn a living and help address their communities’ needs while advancing the Sustainable Development Goals. Particularly, the report found that social entrepreneurship can enhance the social inclusion of vulnerable groups.

“Creating pathways for youth social entrepreneurship can generate positive outcomes for everyone,” said Liu Zhenmin, UN Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs. “When supported by enabling policies and programmes, social entrepreneurship can represent a great way for young people to earn a living, and improve the world around them.”

The benefits of social entrepreneurship

Social entrepreneurship, the report states, can contribute to sustainable and inclusive job creation. Estimates suggest that in 2016, social enterprises benefitted 871 million people in nine countries in Europe and Central Asia, providing services and products worth EUR 6 billion and creating employment, particularly among the most marginalized social groups.

“Wherever supportive and enabling entrepreneurial policies and programmes are in place, youth social entrepreneurship can leverage the energy and creativity of young people as agents of change,” said Elliott Harris, UN Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development and Chief Economist. “However, supporting youth social entrepreneurship does not release decision-makers from their obligation to address the needs of youth, especially in terms of employment.”

Young social entrepreneurs have already made a difference. Zaid Souqi, a young man from Jordan created The Orenda Tribe: Art for Hope in 2014. This value-driven enterprise uses art and art therapy to empower Syrian and Jordanian children in vulnerable situations. Ellen Chilemba, now 30, started Tiwale in Malawi when she was 18 and now has trained over 150 women as entrepreneurs, among other community-based initiatives.

Toufic Al Rjula and partners created Tykn, which aims to provide self-sovereign identity to stateless people and refugees. And Pezana Rexha, a young architect from Albania, created Pana Design: Storytelling Furniture which uses reclaimed wood to create furniture and employs members of society who would normally face difficulties finding employment, such as older persons and persons with disabilities.


The success of youth social entrepreneurship rests on an accurate assessment of its merits, opportunities and challenges and on the implementation of mutually reinforcing support measures. Tailored entrepreneurship ecosystems must be established to help young social entrepreneurs overcome challenges and make an impact. Social entrepreneurship represents one extremely promising and socially advantageous self-employment option for young people but is not a panacea for youth development and in no way releases policymakers from their broader obligation to address the needs of youth in a comprehensive and sustainable manner.


The report calls on governments to put in place policies and regulatory frameworks that promote skills development, ensure the availability of adapted financial capital and services, generate relevant technical support and infrastructure as well as open networks and markets to young social entrepreneurs. Fostering a culture and societal norms that support youth social entrepreneurship is also needed.

The report can be found at


Kategorien: english

Clearing the air

D+C - 3. Juli 2020 - 9:51
Indoor air pollution from cooking with biomass continues to increase the vulnerability of India’s poor to respiratory diseases and Covid-19

Considering the many unknowns surrounding the Covid-19 pandemic, it’s worth noting that at least one factor is indisputable: having a respiratory disease increases one’s vulnerability to the virus.

Respiratory disease is clearly linked to air pollution. So it follows that air pollution increases the risks associated with the Coronavirus. In the USA, Italy and Britain, researchers have shown that exposure to particulate matter increases people’s Covid-19 infection rates and mortality.

However bad air pollution may be in the US, Italy or the UK, it is far worse in cities in much of the developing world. Moreover, the health hazards from indoor air pollution may be even greater than those from outdoor pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that it is indeed the greatest health risk many women face. Traditional cooking with biomass fuels – usually firewood or cow dung – often leads to life-threatening levels of indoor pollution. Things are especially bad in rural areas.

In India alone, indoor pollution from cooking with biomass causes about half a million deaths per year. Things might be better if people knew how harmful indoor air pollution can be.

In 2016, the Indian government launched a large programme to cover the upfront costs of access to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a clean cooking fuel. Over 80 million households adopted the new technology, but many still use traditional biomass for most of their cooking nonetheless. Apart from unawareness of health risks, main reasons are the high price of cylinder refills (the equivalent of about $ 6.5 for a six-week supply for a family of five) and supply bottlenecks. Moreover, people mention security concerns and say the food tastes different.

The good news is that once rural residents know how harmful traditional fuels are, they change their behaviour. In an experimental study we carried out in the Indian state of Rajasthan, we found that many of the households that received information on health hazards related to traditional fuels started using LPG much more frequently. After awareness raising, about 30 % of the households doubled their LPG consumption during the weeks our research observed. That strong reaction was not a surprise. Among the control group, which was not given information, only 13 % were aware of major health issues involved. Most knew, of course, that cooking with cow dung and firewood temporarily irritates the throat and the eyes, but they had no idea of long-term consequences.

Apparently, the communications related to the LPG programme were not clear enough. They referred to LPG as a “clean fuel”, but that reference could be understood as a remedy for the blackened kitchen walls. The marketing campaign did not address serious health issues directly, but highlighted the opportunity to get something that might otherwise be out of reach.

That error should be corrected fast. In view of Covid-19, the Indian government decided to include free LPG cylinders in its Corona support programme for the poor. This is a good opportunity to emphasise the link between pollution, respiratory health and Covid-19.

Only if people know about the risks posed by traditional fuels are they empowered to make conscious choices within their limited budgets. Having that knowledge can also help people to make rational fuel choices in future, once the Covid-19 emergency has passed.

Zahno, M., Michaelowa, K., Dasgupta, P., and Sachdeva, I., 2020: Health awareness and the transition towards clean cooking fuels: Evidence from Rajasthan. PLoS ONE 15(4): e0231931.

Katharina Michaelowa is a professor of political economy and development at the University of Zurich and at the Centre for Comparative and International Studies.

Martina Zahno is a PhD candidate in political economy and development at the University of Zurich.


Kategorien: english

Inheriting Extreme Poverty

EADI Debating Development Research - 3. Juli 2020 - 9:40
By Owasim Akram After working for more than ten years as a development practitioner in Bangladesh with a tremendous opportunity to observe the lives of the extreme poor while living very closely to them, one simple question kept  chasing me all the time: why do millions of them remain still poor despite huge progress in …
Kategorien: english, Ticker

Help from the sky

D+C - 3. Juli 2020 - 9:23
For Africa’s remote and impoverished communities, help may soon come from drones flying through the sky

This year Malawi opened a new training centre for the development of drone technology and for the analysis and visual presentation of data collected by drones. The centre – the African Drone and Data Academy (ADDA) – is supported by Unicef, the UN agency for children, and by aid organisations from several countries.

Malawi has also created a corridor to test drone flights for humanitarian purposes. The corridor – for drone flights within a restricted zone up to 400 meters above ground level – is located near Kasungu airport in the Central Region. A student working there has built a drone that flew 17 kilometres, Unicef says.

The aims of both the air corridor and the ADDA training centre include speeding deliveries of critical items such as laboratory samples and emergency medical supplies to and from all parts of the country, and ultimately all parts of Africa. Many remote areas rely on much slower road and ferry transport.

Drones are also used to collect data that helps to prevent and respond to natural disasters such as droughts and floods. For example, the devices collect data that pinpoint mosquito-breeding sites so that officials can fight malaria and other diseases more effectively.

ADDA supports these aims by responding to “a lack of skills in drone and data technology in Malawi and the wider African continent,” says Rebecca Phwitiko from Unicef. Developing drone technology for humanitarian purposes fits in well with the agency‘s mission to improve the lives of children. “We want to advance technologies that deliver services more effectively to hard-to-reach communities,” says Phwitiko. “This includes new products and programming that support children’s growth, development, education and protection.”

The ADDA trainees are Africans aged between 18 and 24 years who can show proficiency in English. Students also must have university training in a field of science, technology, engineering or mathematics or equivalent practical experience.

The first cohort has already received certificates for completing ADDA courses in drone technology and data analysis. Those students can now use their skills in their home countries, which include Uganda, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Botswana, Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and host country Malawi.

In all of these countries, poor transport links can delay supplies of critically needed items and medicines such as malaria drugs, antibiotics, blood transfusion kits and vaccines. Especially in poor and remote communities, health care can be hard to find. With Malawi’s drone technology and training initiatives, help may soon come from the sky.

Raphael Mweninguwe is a freelance journalist based in Malawi.

Kategorien: english

Covid-19: a watershed moment for collective approaches to community engagement?

ODI - 3. Juli 2020 - 0:00
How to strengthen collective approaches to communication and community engagement as a critical element of the Covid-19 response in humanitarian settings.
Kategorien: english


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