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Vanessa Kerry on prioritizing health at COP27

Devex - 15. November 2022 - 14:41
Kategorien: english

‘Milestone for humanity’ as UN celebrates 8 billionth birth

UN #SDG News - 15. November 2022 - 13:00

The Day of 8 Billion, officially marked on Tuesday, is a milestone moment for human longevity, according to the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), “signalling major improvements in public health”, but it also comes with warnings of worsening economic inequality and environmental damage.

Kategorien: english

Act together now, to prevent ‘raging food catastrophe’ next year: Guterres

UN #SDG News - 15. November 2022 - 13:00

Without coordinated action, this year’s “crisis of affordability” threatens to become a dire global food shortage in 2023, the UN chief told the G20 Summit in Indonesia on Tuesday.

Kategorien: english

Eight billion people; one humanity - 15. November 2022 - 7:30
The world’s population will reach 8 billion in the middle of November – a testament to scientific breakthroughs and improvements in nutrition, public health and sanitation. But as our human family grows larger, it is also growing more divided, writes António Guterres.
Kategorien: english

Sahel region: sharing scarce resources more efficiently

GIZ Germany - 15. November 2022 - 1:11
: Fri, 11 Nov 2022 HH:mm:ss
Resources are scarce in the Sahel region. To prevent conflict over their distribution, communities are relying on data analysis and dialogue.
Kategorien: english

Gender Makes Business Sense in Kenya

SNRD Africa - 15. November 2022 - 1:00

A practical capacity development journey for entrepreneurs in Kenya

The post Gender Makes Business Sense in Kenya appeared first on SNRD Africa.

Kategorien: english

Agripreneurship Training in Western Kenya

SNRD Africa - 15. November 2022 - 0:50

Gender makes Business Sense in Kenya

The post Agripreneurship Training in Western Kenya appeared first on SNRD Africa.

Kategorien: english

Africa’s informal cities need more than green infrastructure to weather the effects of climate change

Brookings - 14. November 2022 - 23:39

By Louise Fox, Danielle Resnick

Even when it’s not raining, we have to be on guard and on the lookout because the Odaw River rapidly swells up with upstream flood water, which can suddenly flow into our home and the market without warning.”

This lament, from a female market trader in Accra, Ghana, epitomizes the anxiety that permeates the daily existence of those working and living in informal conditions in African cities, an anxiety which will only get worse as extreme weather events triggered by climate change become more common in Africa. As the fastest-urbanizing region of the world, Africa’s cities are expanding due to both migration and national population growth, but the provision of jobs, services, and durable housing has not kept pace. Consequently, 65 percent of total employment in Africa is in the informal sector, providing services such as small-scale retail, repair, hairdressing, and tailoring within open-air markets or from home. Approximately 56 percent of urban residents—double the global average—live in slum housing, which is defined as lack of durable housing, unaffordable access to safe drink water and adequate sanitation, insecurity of tenure, and insufficient living space.

The informal city—viewed here as the pockets of a city dominated by slums and informal sector work—is particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts for several reasons. First, high-intensity precipitation can flood houses and places of work, damaging assets and increasing exposure to water-borne diseases. Excess heat can contribute to the “urban heat island” effect whereby heat absorption by built-up surfaces can endanger the health of those working and living in poorly ventilated homes and markets. Third, increased drought can compromise water supply, worsening fire risks in markets and slums while also reducing hydropower resources and thus exacerbating electricity shortages, hurting informal businesses. Fourth, higher sea levels and tides will increase flooding in Africa’s low-elevation coastal zones where population growth will increase in the coming decade. Yet, national climate change action plans (NCCAPs) prepared by African governments tend to overlook the threats to communities living and working in informal settings.

In a recent chapter prepared for the Global Center on Adaptation’s State and Trends in Adaptation Report 2022, we examine these challenges for informal communities in more detail by focusing on Accra, Ghana. We draw on interviews with policymakers and local politicians as well as focus group discussions with market traders, neighborhood associations, and traditional authorities to develop a framework about how climate change and informality intersect in African cities and to map out the tensions between formal governance structures and the realities of the informal city that obstruct inclusive adaptation.

Ghana is typical of other countries in the region that are increasingly affected by the impacts of climate change, including more volatile shifts in rainfall and heat. The capital city of Accra is one of Ghana’s 261 local government administrations. While the city has a population of about 2.6 million, it is also part of the larger Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA), which contains about 15 percent of Ghana’s total population. Accra’s low-lying elevation makes it increasingly vulnerable to climate volatility. In addition to flooding from excessive rainfall, Accra receives water runoffs flowing downward from other municipalities. The city is also affected by overflows from the Odaw River, the Korle Lagoon, and the Onyasia River as well as the growth in impervious surface areas, insufficient drainage, improper disposal of waste, and haphazard construction on waterways.

The threat of climate change has not gone unnoticed by Ghana’s policymakers, and several large-scale adaptation initiatives are underway, including drainage investments, expanding access to energy-efficient building materials, and paving alleyways in informal settlements. However, most initiatives do not address the realities of the informal city. First, there is a vast degree of institutional coordination required to address climate adaptation in informal communities within cities, especially in countries with relatively high levels of decentralization. In Ghana, at least 10 national ministries have a role to play in either climate, employment, housing, or urban development. Moreover, since climate issues are often cross-jurisdictional, the Accra city government must coordinate with a broad range of other local governments in GAMA that have variable levels of capacities and resources. There are numerous informal sector organizations in Accra, but the maze of government actors impedes these organizations from advocating for their interests and identifying who should be held accountable for adaptation investment deficiencies and failures.

Second, insecure land tenure is an underlying contributor to the growth of informal slums in Accra and elsewhere and a major hindrance for climate adaptation investments. Upgrading housing structures and urban infrastructure may be possible in communities where land was acquired legally, but it is contentious in communities living in illegal settlements, such as those on government or private land. This is a central challenge in the settlement of Old Fadama, one of Ghana’s largest slums; because it emerged organically from a wetlands area, it is highly vulnerable to frequent flooding. Most notably, floods in 2015 caused the deaths of more than 150 people in Accra, leading the government to demolish parts of the community near the Korle Lagoon so as to deepen and widen it. A history of eviction campaigns and poorly planned resettlement efforts has undermined trust in local authorities’ intentions, and the settlement’s extra-legal status implies that the government is not legally responsible for providing services to residents. As one traditional authority in Old Fadama exclaimed, “The District Assembly officials cannot dare come into this community to collect taxes. What have they done for us?”

Trust is equally a concern for those working in the informal sector, especially those engaged in street hawking. By-laws within local governments often criminalize such vendors for encroaching on public space. Several of Accra’s past mayors have pursued “decongestion” campaigns against informal workers, especially street vendors, even though there are few viable alternative places for such traders to locate.

Political economy dynamics are a recurrent factor in addressing the priorities of market traders and residents of informal housing. Government authorities, both national and local, often have been more interested in attracting investment for tourism, business, and high-end housing, while having few incentives outside of electoral periods to provide goods and services to the informal city. Politicians from all parties promise to protect residents during campaign periods only to abandon them after elections take place.

Overall, our chapter emphasizes that a broader set of priorities is needed in climate change discussions to address the impacts on the most vulnerable in African cities. Global events such as the current COP27 climate conference place a heavy emphasis on financing for green infrastructure and for green jobs. While such policy thrusts are important, they will need to be bundled with institutional, legal, trust-building, and capacity strengthening reforms in order for adaptation interventions to truly be transformative.

Kategorien: english

CPDE policy brief calls for effectiveness in climate finance

CSO Partnership - 14. November 2022 - 18:26

Through a policy brief, global civil society platform CSO Partnership for Development Effectiveness called on development stakeholders to uphold effectiveness principles in the global climate finance architecture.

The four effectiveness principles, also known as the Busan Principles, are the following:

Country ownership. Countries set their own national development priorities, and development partners align their support accordingly while using country systems.
Focus on results. Development cooperation seeks to achieve measurable results by using country-led results frameworks and monitoring and evaluation systems.
Inclusive partnerships. Development partnerships are inclusive, recognising the different and complementary roles of all actors.
Transparency and mutual accountability. Countries and their development partners are accountable to each other and to their respective constituents. They are jointly responsible for ensuring that development cooperation information is publicly available.

“As the international community seeks to scale up the delivery of climate finance, there is growing interest on how effectiveness principles could be applied to ensure relevance and greater accountability of international climate finance effectively. This paper highlights some of the key issues of interest to the international community in this respect, drawing on insights from the literature on climate finance, and the development community’s experience and lessons in advocating for aid effectiveness.”

On this basis, the brief outlines an initial approach to examine the key components of effective global climate finance architecture, with reference to the administration and governance and the disbursement and implementation of climate change funding.

The document guided the platform’s engagements at the COP27 in Egypt. Download the full paper via this link.#

The post CPDE policy brief calls for effectiveness in climate finance appeared first on CSO Partnership for Development Effectiveness.

Kategorien: english, Ticker

Mohamed Nasheed on climate prosperity plans

Devex - 14. November 2022 - 18:25
Kategorien: english

Renewing global climate change action for fragile and developing countries

Brookings - 14. November 2022 - 18:20

By Landry Signé, Ahmadou Aly Mbaye

The acceleration of climate change is recognized to have negative impacts on development and security.1 The impacts can vary significantly depending on the sector, location, and time period under consideration.2 Climate change has major impact on human health. Numerous studies explore the impact of higher temperatures on economic performance, showing the overall negative impact of hot temperatures.3 The harmful effects of climate change are already noticeable, natural disasters are more frequent and catastrophic, and developing countries are more vulnerable, according to the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development. Although climate change is a worldwide phenomenon, poor people and poor countries are more severely affected by its negative effects.4 According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), progressive changes will result in higher overall temperatures and altered water cycle, leading to a rise in sea level and shifting of climatic zones.5

These effects include lower agricultural yields, exacerbated weather events like droughts and floods, and increased vulnerabilities. According to the World Bank, more than 140 million economically disadvantaged people from Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America will be forced to migrate internally due to climate change impacts including water shortages, decreasing agricultural productivity, and rising sea levels by 2050.6 In 2019 alone, climate change caused 24.9 million weather-related displacements.7 When such displacements happen in fragile states, they not only create national security and development challenges, but also threaten international security. If left unchecked, climate change has the potential to reverse years of sustainable development gains and fuel violent conflicts.8 It is critically important to better understand the nexus between climate, conflict, fragility, and development so that policymakers globally can take appropriate action in collaboration with developing, fragile, and conflict-affected countries. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the appropriate and renewed climate actions that urgently need to be taken for an effective and just climate adaptation. We argue that while the concerned governments are left with the responsibility of embedding climate policy into their national development policies, G20 countries have unique responsibilities in providing the needed financing and appropriate technology transfer to support adaptation policies in fragile and developing countries, being of the highest levels of world emissions.

Figure 1. Increase in CO2 emissions in the world, 2010-2019

Source: Härterich and Petersen, 2021 (based on EU Commission data)

Note: More than 80 percent of the nations whose CO2 emissions increased most during the last ten years are low- and lower-middle-income economies.

>>Download the full working paper here.

Kategorien: english

Small Cup, Big Impact

SNRD Africa - 14. November 2022 - 17:24

Small cups making a difference in rural Malawi

The post Small Cup, Big Impact appeared first on SNRD Africa.

Kategorien: english

UN chief highlights crucial role of G20 in resolving global crises

UN #SDG News - 14. November 2022 - 13:00

With the global population now at eight billion and growing, action or inaction by the world’s largest economies, the G20, will be critical to determine if everyone gets to live on a peaceful and healthy planet, UN Secretary-General António Guterres said at a press conference in Bali, Indonesia, on Monday. 

Kategorien: english

„Moral muss man sich leisten können!“

GDI Briefing - 14. November 2022 - 9:00

Bonn, 14.11.2022. Politik steckt voller Zielkonflikte und Widersprüchlichkeiten. Die Liste der autokratisch geführten Länder, in die hochrangige deutsche Regierungsvertreter*innen in den vergangenen Monaten – in außergewöhnlichen Krisenzeiten –  Auslandsreisen unternahmen, erfuhr einige öffentliche Kritik. Ziel vieler dieser Reisen ist es, die Energiesicherheit für Deutschland zu erhöhen – nicht zuletzt durch Abkommen, die den Zugang zu weiteren fossilen Energien erreichen sollen.

Selbstredend sind vertiefte Beziehungen zu Autokratien und Abkommen über die Lieferung neuer fossiler Energien nicht Teil einer beabsichtigten Politik. Ganz im Gegenteil: Die Bundesregierung hat sich das Ende des fossilen Zeitalters und eine wertegeleitete internationale Politik zum Ziel gesetzt. „Unsere Außen-, Sicherheits- und Entwicklungspolitik werden wir wertebasiert (…) aufstellen“, heißt es im Koalitionsvertrag. Angesichts dieses Anspruchs werden Zielkonflikte umso deutlicher – etwa mit Blick auf die im Oktober genehmigten Waffenlieferungen nach Saudi-Arabien.

Widersprüchlichkeiten in der Politik der Handelnden aufzuzeigen, ist meist nicht besonders schwierig. Dies lässt sich durchweg für frühere Bundesregierungen konstatieren. Dies gilt umso mehr seitdem Russlands Aggressionspolitik kurzfristig einschneidende Veränderungen erforderlich gemacht hat. Zugleich ist eine Bundesregierung, die gerade die Wertebasierung in den Mittelpunkt stellt, besonders herausgefordert.

Entwicklungspolitik ist stärker als andere Politikfelder durch Werte begründet. Humanismus, christliche Werte, Fragen der internationalen Gerechtigkeit und andere Werte spielen eine vergleichsweise hervorgehobene Rolle. Werte schließen auch Interessen nicht aus und umgekehrt – zumal beide Begriffe nicht auf absolut klar abgrenzbaren Konzepten beruhen.

Entwicklungspolitik muss sich in fundamentalen Umbruchzeiten verändern. Insofern ist gerade die Frage nach dem Verhältnis von Werten und Interessen wichtig. Die Frage ist prinzipieller Natur, sie ist aber ebenso als Kompass für konkrete Entscheidungen von enormer Bedeutung. Muss Entwicklungspolitik nach Jahren der Beschäftigung mit Lieferketten neben den Produktionsbedingungen in Entwicklungsländern strategische Aspekte der Rohstoff- und Energieversorgung für Deutschland stärker in den Blick nehmen? Wie soll unter diesen Vorzeichen entwicklungspolitische Zusammenarbeit mit autokratischen Regimen aussehen?

Folgende Punkte sollten für eine Positionierung berücksichtigt werden:

Erstens, wertebasierte Politik ist für internationale Glaubwürdigkeit unmittelbar relevant: Die Annahme, Werte könnten in „Schönwetterzeiten“ Platz finden, hätten aber in Krisenzeiten keinen Bestand, verkennt die Rolle von Vertrauen, Glaubwürdigkeit und Transparenz in den internationalen Beziehungen. Die Debatten bei den Vereinten Nationen zur russischen Aggressionspolitik haben deutlich gemacht, wie Doppelstandards (etwa mit Blick auf die Irak-Militärintervention von 2003) oder ausbleibende Reformen bei Global-Governance-Strukturen unmittelbar (deutsche) Sicherheitsinteressen berühren. Entwicklungspolitik kann dabei ein entscheidendes Politikfeld in der Kooperation mit dem Globalen Süden sein.

Zweitens, viele Debatten sind unterkomplex, weil sie monothematisch geführt werden: Globale Herausforderungen – angefangen von Ungleichheit über Klimawandel bis hin zu Legitimität von politischer Herrschaft – sind jeweils schon für sich genommen schwierig und lassen sich oft anhand von dichotomen Mustern (Autokratien versus Demokratien; „Norden“ versus. „Süden“ etc.) nicht sinnvoll erfassen. Für Entwicklungspolitik ist es wichtig, mit dieser Vielschichtigkeit umzugehen. Schlicht nur auf die „Bedürftigkeit“ eines Landes zu schauen (unabhängig etwa von der Bedeutung von Regierungsführung für bestehende Probleme) wäre eine solche Verkürzung, ebenso wie ausschließlich Regierungsführung als einziges Kriterium für die Auswahl von Kooperationsbeziehungen zu setzen. Besonders sichtbar werden Zielkonflikte mit Blick auf China, wo eine Vielzahl u.a. von wirtschaftlichen, sicherheitsrelevanten und menschenrechtsbezogenen Themen zusammenkommen.

Drittens, Zielkonflikte existieren und sollten transparent diskutiert werden: Für Entwicklungspolitik und andere Politikfelder gilt, dass es einen Unterschied macht, ob und wie Widersprüchlichkeiten thematisiert werden. Der Abwägungs- und Priorisierungsprozess macht Politik aus.

Politik basiert im besten Fall auf langfristigen Zielen und dazu passenden Strategien. Die multiplen Krisen zwingen dazu, in Zeiten von grundlegenden Unsicherheiten, Politiken in Form von Strategien zu formulieren – selbst wenn dies angesichts rasch veränderlicher Grundlagen extrem schwierig ist. Dies zeigt sich mit Blick auf die Vorbereitung der ersten deutschen nationalen Sicherheitsstrategie und ähnlich auf die angekündigte China-Strategie der Bundesregierung. Neben dem Bedarf an längerfristiger Orientierung sollte die Aufmerksamkeit auf konkrete Mechanismen zur „Aushandlung“ von Zielkonflikten innerhalb und vor allem zwischen Politikfeldern liegen. Ein besseres Schnittstellenmanagement wäre in der deutschen Politik ein wichtiger Schritt, mit Zielkonflikten umzugehen. Die anstehenden Strategie-Dokumente sollten daran gemessen werden, ob sie zu einer solchen verbesserten Politikkohärenz einen Beitrag leisten können.

Kategorien: english

Why is North Korea Suddenly Launching an Unprecedented Number of Missile Tests?

UN Dispatch - 14. November 2022 - 4:00

Over the last several weeks, North Korea has launched an unprecedented number of missile tests. In one week alone in early November, North Korea launched over 80 missiles, including short and long range ballistic missiles.

In this episode, we speak to Kelsey Davenport, Director of Nonproliferation Policy at the Arms Control Association, to put these tests in context of geopolitics, what kinds of technologies that North Korea is testing, and what these missile tests suggest about North Korea’s nuclear strategies and intentions?

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The post Why is North Korea Suddenly Launching an Unprecedented Number of Missile Tests? appeared first on UN Dispatch.

Kategorien: english

Xiye Bastida on climate justice

Devex - 13. November 2022 - 22:08
Kategorien: english

Transnational cities alliances and their role in policy-making in sustainable urban development in the European Arctic

GDI Briefing - 13. November 2022 - 21:07

Non-governmental actors perform an important role in the functioning of democracy. However, they are often perceived as being less tied to its principles as they are not fully controlled by democratic procedures and institutions. This chapter focuses on transnational alliances between cities in the European Arctic as a special kind of non-governmental actors. Different to other non-governmental actors, the collaborating actors are here elected representatives. But do such alliances have a greater authority in Arctic politics? The purpose of this chapter is twofold: First, it introduces the Nordic model of local self-government to discuss public participation in Arctic cities and the possibilities and hindrances of stakeholders to inform policy-making processes in the context of Arctic urban development. Second, this chapter seeks to assess in how far city-alliances – like the Arctic Mayors’ Forum (AMF) – as a specific kind of non-governmental actors have a unique say in Arctic politics at the national, regional, and local levels. It further investigates in how far such alliances can be perceived as actors that are crucial to enhance more coherent policy-making in the Arctic. This chapter is based on a transdisciplinary approach that considers legal challenges and the power/knowledge nexus in policy-making.

Kategorien: english

Gender-sensitive Agriculture Policies

SNRD Africa - 13. November 2022 - 16:13

Coaching and peer learning in Rwanda

The post Gender-sensitive Agriculture Policies appeared first on SNRD Africa.

Kategorien: english

Feminist & Fair

SNRD Africa - 13. November 2022 - 13:25

Report back from a networking and peer-learning event

The post Feminist & Fair appeared first on SNRD Africa.

Kategorien: english


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