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Turning crisis into opportunity: World leaders meet at UN to help drive pandemic recovery

UN ECOSOC - 2. Juli 2021 - 6:30
Leading figures from government, business and civil society are preparing to take part in this year’s High Level Political Forum on sustainable development (HLPF), where they will discuss ways to recover from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and turn the deadly crisis into an opportunity for a major shift towards a more sustainable global economy.
Kategorien: english

Remittances: One more thing that economists failed at predicting during COVID-19

Brookings - 1. Juli 2021 - 20:55

By Dany Bahar

Remittances—the flow of capital from immigrants to their families and friends back home—are a crucial source of income for many countries, representing over 20 percent of the GDP in nations such as Tonga, Tajikistan, Haiti, Honduras, and El Salvador, among others. As of 2019, remittances reached an unprecedented level of about $550 billion, becoming the largest financial flow in the world, surpassing official development assistance (ODA).

Hence, when COVID-19 became a global pandemic in the second quarter of 2020, policymakers worried about the resilience of remittance flows. The World Bank projected that remittances would drop by nearly 20 percent, falling by over $100 billion in 2020 compared to 2019. The intuition was clear. The largest remittance-sending country in the world is the United States (sending over $70 billion as of 2019), whose economy was predicted to shrink significantly due to reduced mobility as people, businesses, and policies responded to COVID-19. Many immigrants working in service industries were especially hard hit so it was logical to project a sharp decline in remittance flows.

Turns out, however, the unexpected happened. We now know that the global flow of remittances during 2020 reached about $540 billion, about 2 percent short of the 2019 record high. Remittance inflows into Latin America and the Caribbean actually grew by about 6.5 percent in 2020. While they dropped in other regions (namely, East Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa), the overall dynamics defied expectations. It turns out that remittances were (and perhaps will continue to be) an extremely resilient flow.

The global flow of remittances during 2020 reached about $540 billion, about 2 percent short of the 2019 record high.

How can we make sense, ex post, of this yet another failed prediction by economists? Well, we certainly will need some more data to understand what exactly happened. But here I offer a few possible explanations, hoping more in-depth research will disentangle between them in the not-so-distant future.

First, there is probably a lot of heterogeneity among the type of immigrants sending remittances, particularly in cases where outflows grew. Immigrants are a very diverse group of people. And while remittance outflows might have decreased among immigrants more vulnerable to the economic downturn, they probably increased among immigrants that have a steadier source of income.

But, why would remittances increase (as opposed to remaining steady) at times when it is difficult for everyone? This is where human resilience and empathy enter the equation. In the U.S., for instance, the economic recovery is an unexpectedly quick one, whereas it was clear from the beginning that in the developing world COVID-19 would hit emerging markets especially hard. Thus, it is likely that immigrants living in the U.S. decided to make an extra effort to send some more funds to their friends and families to make sure they will have extra income in the uncertain times ahead. In other words, by foreseeing that the economic downturn would be relatively worse in their home countries, immigrants stepped up to make sure their families would be financially more comfortable. In fact, economic research on remittances finds evidence that these flows—as opposed to foreign investment, for instance—are countercyclical for the country of origin of the immigrant. In other words, when times are hard in the home country, immigrants would send more funds to make sure their families and friends back home have enough funds to thrive during the downturn.

Second, evidence suggests that many immigrants were able to dip into their savings to continue to support their families abroad—even for immigrants that faced difficulties in terms of their employment. Several pieces of empirical work (reviewed here) show that many immigrants accumulate savings which they typically use to invest if and when they return.

Third, while it is clear that for many immigrants in the U.S. things became really difficult economically (health-wise, too, as minorities had a higher morbidity rate than the average American), immigrants are also thought to be very resilient people given their risk-taking behavior. Early on, immigrants in the U.S., alongside other minorities, were a driving force of the lockdown economy, as many of them were working in fundamental occupations. Many immigrants, knowing that returning to their home countries was not an option during the pandemic—and in many cases without any guarantees that they could count on government assistance—would respond to hardships by finding creative ways to remain employed, like switching industries or occupations or working extra hours. All in order to support their families, including those left behind. It is this resilience of immigrants that makes them such an asset to host countries in general.

Thus, even if it is too early to understand the insights that a more rigorous analysis using data would give us to explain how during a global recession remittances stayed pretty much untouched, just the fact that it happened suggests that humanity and resilience are at the core of this phenomenon.

      
Kategorien: english

The Crisis in Syria is at a Major Turning Point

UN Dispatch - 1. Juli 2021 - 17:37

The crisis in Syria is at a crossroads.

This is not because the underlying dynamics of the conflict have changed in any big way. As it has been for the last couple years, the Syrian government has regained control over most of the country — with the exception of parts of northern Syria near the border with Turkey. This includes much of the Idlib province, where a stalemate in the fighting endures.

Rather, what makes this such a perilous moment in the 10 year history of the Syria conflict is that the millions of people trapped in Idlib may soon face a near complete cutoff of the humanitarian aid upon which they rely.

Since 2014, the United Nations has mounted a massive humanitarian relief operation to serve people trapped in rebel held areas. The United Nations and international aid agencies have so far been able to deliver aid directly to besieged populations in Northern Syria via Turkey because of a Security Council resolution authorizing the cross border delivery of aid, even if the government of Syria objects. (Normally humanitarian relief operations require — for both practical and legal reasons — the consent of the government on whose territory aid is being delivered. But back in 2014, with millions of people displaced in areas outside of government control, and with the government refusing to let aid agencies operate in those areas, the Security Council made legal the ostensible violation of Syrian territorial sovereignty in order to enable the cross border delivery of aid.)

That was 2014. And that system worked for a while. But over the past 18 months the government of Russia has begun to object to this cross border aid delivery to the point where Moscow has used its veto power at the Security Council to force all but one remaining border crossing to close to international aid.

Today, we are facing a potential turning point in the crisis in Syria because Russia has signaled that it intends to veto a Security Council resolution allowing that last remaining border crossing to stay open. Unless an agreement is reached that border crossing will close on July 10, cutting off the last lifeline for millions of people in Idlib. A humanitarian calamity will follow.

On the line with me to discuss this situation is Vanessa Jackson, UN Representative and Head of Office for CARE International at the United Nations.  CARE is a large international humanitarian organization that currently serves populations in Idlib through this last remaining border crossing. In our conversation we discuss the current humanitarian situation in Syria, and the dynamics around the ongoing debate on the delivery of humanitarian aid to Syria.

 

 

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The post The Crisis in Syria is at a Major Turning Point appeared first on UN Dispatch.

Kategorien: english

The Crisis in Syria is at a Major Turning Point

UN Dispatch - 1. Juli 2021 - 17:37

The crisis in Syria is at a crossroads.

This is not because the underlying dynamics of the conflict have changed in any big way. As it has been for the last couple years, the Syrian government has regained control over most of the country — with the exception of parts of northern Syria near the border with Turkey. This includes much of the Idlib province, where a stalemate in the fighting endures.

Rather, what makes this such a perilous moment in the 10 year history of the Syria conflict is that the millions of people trapped in Idlib may soon face a near complete cutoff of the humanitarian aid upon which they rely.

Since 2014, the United Nations has mounted a massive humanitarian relief operation to serve people trapped in rebel held areas. The United Nations and international aid agencies have so far been able to deliver aid directly to besieged populations in Northern Syria via Turkey because of a Security Council resolution authorizing the cross border delivery of aid, even if the government of Syria objects. (Normally humanitarian relief operations require — for both practical and legal reasons — the consent of the government on whose territory aid is being delivered. But back in 2014, with millions of people displaced in areas outside of government control, and with the government refusing to let aid agencies operate in those areas, the Security Council made legal the ostensible violation of Syrian territorial sovereignty in order to enable the cross border delivery of aid.)

That was 2014. And that system worked for a while. But over the past 18 months the government of Russia has begun to object to this cross border aid delivery to the point where Moscow has used its veto power at the Security Council to force all but one remaining border crossing to close to international aid.

Today, we are facing a potential turning point in the crisis in Syria because Russia has signaled that it intends to veto a Security Council resolution allowing that last remaining border crossing to stay open. Unless an agreement is reached that border crossing will close on July 10, cutting off the last lifeline for millions of people in Idlib. A humanitarian calamity will follow.

On the line with me to discuss this situation is Vanessa Jackson, UN Representative and Head of Office for CARE International at the United Nations.  CARE is a large international humanitarian organization that currently serves populations in Idlib through this last remaining border crossing. In our conversation we discuss the current humanitarian situation in Syria, and the dynamics around the ongoing debate on the delivery of humanitarian aid to Syria.

 

 

Apple Podcasts  | Google Podcasts |  Spotify  |  Stitcher  | Radio Public

The post The Crisis in Syria is at a Major Turning Point appeared first on UN Dispatch.

Kategorien: english

Global governance needs reshaping if we’re to achieve the SDGs

GDI Briefing - 1. Juli 2021 - 17:00

The challenge of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) puts the way in which we govern ourselves to the test. If we wanted to achieve the SDGs by 2030 by just using the governance structures of the pre-2015 world, we would end up in that world again, or even worse. For several years, our domestic political systems and the global governance architecture have been struggling to respond effectively to people’s changing needs and aspirations, as well as to present and future threats to our societies. The COVID-19 pandemic has further laid bare the deficiencies of how our societies, as well as humanity as a whole, deal with common and collective problems.

Kategorien: english

Warum ökologische Strukturpolitik Schwerpunkt der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit sein sollte

GDI Briefing - 1. Juli 2021 - 12:02

Die Europäische Union hat mit ihrem Green Deal ein Zeichen gesetzt: Der notwendige ökologische Umbau der Volkswirtschaften wird als Chance für die Modernisierung und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der europäischen Wirtschaft erkannt. Das bricht mit einer noch immer weit verbreiteten Sicht, der zufolge die Wirtschaft nur florieren könne, wenn Umweltauflagen möglichst gering seien und Umweltschutz eher nachsorgenden Charakter haben sollte, um Umweltschäden nachträglich teilweise zu kompensieren.  


Kluge Strukturpolitik zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass sie zukünftige Marktbedingungen antizipiert und die heimische Wirtschaft dahingehend lenkt und fördert, sich auf diese Bedingungen einzustellen – im Idealfall bevor die Wettbewerber dies tun. Neben der Digitalisierung ist Umweltschutz derzeit der stärkste Treiber wirtschaftlichen Strukturwandels. Ein Beispiel: China erkannte schon vor gut 15 Jahren, dass die Elektrifizierung der Busflotten nicht nur eine der kostengünstigsten Maßnahmen ist, um die Feinstaubbelastung zu senken, sondern auch ein Wachstumsmarkt, weil irgendwann alle Großstädte der Welt diesen Weg gehen würden. Mit einer Mischung aus Regulierung, Forschungsförderung und Kaufprämien wurden Elektrobusse zur Serienreife gebracht. Chinas Anteil am Weltmarkt für Elektrobusse liegt heute bei 96%, Verkehrsverbünde aus aller Welt kaufen in China. Große Automobilnationen wie Deutschland haben diesen Trend verschlafen.   


Wie kann die internationale Entwicklungszusammenarbeit ökologische Strukturpolitik fördern? Gerade arme Länder und Bevölkerungsgruppen werden nachhaltiges Wirtschaften nur akzeptieren und umsetzen, wenn sie darin ein zukunftsfähiges Wirtschaftsprogramm erkennen. Das spricht für eine systematische Verzahnung der traditionellen Handlungsfelder „Wirtschaftsförderung“ und „Umweltschutz“ – wie im Fall der chinesischen Elektrobusse. Damit könnte die deutsche Entwicklungszusammenarbeit ein besonderes Profil ausbauen. Einige Beispiele:


Ein gutes Dutzend afrikanischer Länder mit guten Solar-, Wind- oder Geothermieressourcen könnten diese nutzen, um vor Ort energieintensive Industriecluster aufzubauen, insbesondere wenn sie die Stromerzeugung mit Elektrolyse zur Speicherung („grüner Wasserstoff“) verknüpfen. Sie könnten damit Industrien anziehen, die ihren CO2-Fußabdruck verkleinern müssen, wie z.B. die Autoindustrie, oder die Produktion von grünem Stahl und Zement voranbringen. Länder mit rasch wachsender städtischer Infrastruktur könnten sich auf klimafreundliches Bauen mit Holz, Lehm und anderen nachwachsenden Ressourcen spezialisieren und dadurch lokale Wirtschaftskreisläufe in Gang setzen, anstatt kapital- und energieintensiven Zement, Stahl und Aluminium zu verbauen. Indien könnte darin unterstützt werden, den U-Bahn-Bau weiter zu entwickeln, denn die Wachstumsmärkte hierfür liegen in den Megastädten des Südens. Aus bestehenden Umweltprogrammen zur Abfallvermeidung könnten solche werden, die Kreislaufwirtschaft zu einem beschäftigungsintensiven Wettbewerbsvorteil weiterentwickeln. Bio-ökonomische Innovationen – von Bioplastik aus Agrarabfällen bis hin zu innovativen Fleischersatzprodukten – könnten gefördert werden, um vor Ort industrielle Wertschöpfung und neue Märkte für die bäuerliche Landwirtschaft zu erschließen.


Eine wichtige Grundlage für all dies sind ökologische Fiskalreformen. Nur wenn Verschmutzung und Ressourcenverschwendung teurer werden, entstehen Anreize für die oben genannten Innovationen. Hier bietet sich derzeit eine große Chance für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit. Durch Mehrausgaben und Einnahmeausfälle in der Corona-Pandemie steigt weltweit die Notwendigkeit, Steuern zu erhöhen und Subventionen zu überdenken. Anstatt Arbeit oder Kapital stärker zu besteuern, ist dies der Moment, ökologische Lenkungssteuern auch in Partnerländern einzuführen und Subventionen auf fossile Energieträger abzuschaffen. Dieses sozialverträglich auszugestalten, muss zu einem Schwerpunkt der nächsten Legislaturperiode werden.


Von einer solchen Ausrichtung der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit auf ökologische Strukturpolitik würde ganz nebenbei auch die deutsche Wirtschaft profitieren; denn sie würde Märkte für innovative Umweltgüter und -dienstleistungen fördern, auf denen deutsche Unternehmen gut dastehen. Deren Expertise einzubinden, würde allen Beteiligten nützen. Die Vergangenheit hat gezeigt, wie klein der Spielraum dafür ist, hiesige Unternehmen durch Kreditsubventionen, Exportbeihilfen oder Hermes-Bürgschaften für Investitionen in den globalen Süden zu locken. Erfolgversprechender ist es, die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit mit dem europäischen Green Deal zu harmonisieren.

Kategorien: english

Getting up to speed with inclusive development

INCLUDE Platform - 1. Juli 2021 - 9:00
The INCLUDE team’s reading list: June 2021

One of INCLUDE’s core beliefs is that so much knowledge already exists, it just needs guiding to the right places and the right people in order to reach its full impact for policy and, ultimately, for development. Whether you are seeking information to guide policy, embarking upon a piece of research, or simply interested in broadening your knowledge and staying updated on inclusive development in Africa, we hope this source can be a good starting point.

As summer begins, there has been no slowdown in the quantity and quality of output from research and development organisations. Momentum continues around social protection, digitalisation and COVID-19 recovery. Here we share some of the latest research in these areas.

Digitalisation
  • This year’s Financial Inclusion Global Initiative (FIGI) symposium ran from 18 May to 24 June, with series of webinars on Fintech for inclusion; Digital ID; Electronic payments; Gender equity; Consumer protection and Cybersecurity. The conference session recordings and working group papers are now accessible online on the FIGI website.
  • International Poverty Action (IPA) have published findings from three household surveys on consumer protection in digital finance user in Nigeria, Uganda and Kenya. The surveys addressed issues such as scams and fraud, complaints handling, transparency and hidden charges, competition and consumer choice, agent conduct and digital credit.
  • Why Digitalization and Digital Governance Are Key to Regional Integration in Africa – The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) potential might not be fully realized without stronger digital connectivity and effective policies that (1) promote the free flow of data and information across member states to facilitate knowledge sharing and collaboration and (2) reduce trade integration costs and address existing structural barriers to intra-regional trade in Africa. This article by the CGD discusses how digitalization can help to address structural barriers to trade in Africa.
  • How to provide online learning and skills training to youth in low-bandwidth areas – A UNICEF joint study estimates 2.2 billion people — or two-thirds of children and young people under age 25 — do not have internet access at home. The World Bank share strategies and delivery models from a Solutions For Youth Employment (S4YE) Knowledge Brief to address the bandwidth challenge and create an engaging experience while recognizing the local particularities of learners.
  • Digital innovations accelerated by COVID-19 are revolutionizing food systems: Implications for the UN Food Systems Summit – Recent publications by the IFPRI identify several emerging fundamental changes in individual business and supply-chain operations through digital technologies. These food system innovations have been almost entirely market-driven and introduced by private sector actors, but their ability to innovate heavily depended on the availability of adequate basic infrastructure, mobile information and communications technology (ICT) networks, and regulation put in place by past public investment and policies.
Education and training
  • The Pathway to Progress on SDG 4: A Symposium – Earlier this year, Girin Beeharry stepped down as the inaugural director of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s global education program, leaving behind a manifesto for international actors in the education sector. The heart of this manifesto is that we must reorient global aid for education around promoting foundational literacy and numeracy, unflinchingly monitor progress on that core goal, and hold all development institutions accountable for measurable results in this domain. A collection of 21 essays provides reflections and counter proposals to Girin’s essay by sector leaders, researchers, and practitioners.
  • PREPARE to Succeed: A Research Consortium on Progress and Resilience in Education – CGD’s education program is launching the Partnership for Research on Progress and Resilience in Education (PREPARE), a consortium of research institutions who will work together to produce rigorous evidence on the most important education challenges posed by COVID-19. To begin, PREPARE partners based (initially) in Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Pakistan and Senegal are focusing on how to ensure children can re-enrol safely, determine what learning has been lost and how to reverse this, and understand the potentially large differential impacts of the pandemic on girls and vulnerable groups.
  • Hard skills or soft skills for the youth – In a new working paper for CEGA, Chioda et al set up two mini-MBA trainings for Ugandan students about to graduate from secondary school. One of these is predominantly hard skills, while the other focuses on soft skills. Both curricula had training on defining entrepreneurship, identifying business opportunities, and using technology in a small business. Three and half years later, it turns out they both work – more businesses, higher profits and yes, more employees!
Social protection
  • Social protection and job responses to covid-19 – This 15th edition of the living paper on global social protection responses to Covid-19, by Ugo Gentilini at the World Bank, presents a rich set of updates. The database shows that between March 20, 2020 and May 14, 2021, a total of 3,333 social protection measures have been planned or implemented in 222 countries or territories. This represents an increase of nearly 148% since December 2020. While social assistance and insurance soared by about 120% and 110%, respectively, active labor market interventions surged by nearly 330%. This increase is due to both augmented recent country-level action and enhanced data collection of experiences.
  • How did Mozambique support vulnerable urban and peri-urban households during the pandemic? This ILO report documents how the government worked in partnership with community-based organizations to register more than 945,000 new beneficiaries for six months of cash transfers, provided through the “Post Emergency COVID-19 Direct Social Support Program.”
  • Social assistance in Ethiopia during COVID-19 – In a pandemic, government assistance is effective only if it reaches the most affected families in time. A Brookings analysis examines how many and which households received support between March and October 2020, what kinds of support they received, where/whom the support came from, and how this support changed over time.
  • Agricultural insurance: The antidote to many economic illnesses – Brookings discuss how agriculture insurance can be an antidote to climatic shocks, which threaten global food security and stability, cripple livelihoods and disrupt value chains. Insurance de-risks lending to the farm sector enabling repayment of loans, reduces budget volatility of agriculture-related fiscal expenditures by transferring climatic risk to the private sector, increases fiscal space during shock years, and stimulates growth of the agriculture sector, which can unlock job creation potential. It can even reduce the scope for fiscal leakages and corruption.
Youth
  • It’s 2021 – How is Africa protecting its young people? – Chiamaka Nwachukwu, one of the moderators at INCLUDE’s recent conference on ‘Building forward more inclusively’, draws some clear and insightful messages from her session “Merging perspectives on decent employment for Africa’s youth post pandemic”, grounding them in the context of her home country, Nigeria, and reflecting on the implications for development policy and dialogue.
  • How COVID-19 is likely to slow down a decade of youth development in Africa – There are fears that the pandemic will result in a lockdown generation, characterised by structurally higher youth poverty, unemployment and inequalities. This article argues that to prevent this future, we must focus on youth entrepreneurship and digital entrepreneurial ecosystems.
Women and gender
  • Promoting an Inclusive Recovery by Prioritizing Gender: A “Care, Cash, and Data” Agenda for the IDA20 Replenishment – Against the backdrop of contracting fiscal space—in both donor and recipient countries—and competing priorities for IDA resources, establishing a robust agenda to promote gender equality for IDA20 is an imperative. To address the gendered impacts of the COVID crisis, CGD researchers working through the COVID-19 Gender and Development Initiative have proposed three priority focus areas: care, cash, and data.
  • How to Promote Young Women’s Resilience in the Face of COVID-19 Induced Economic Shocks: Lessons from Urban Mozambique – MUVA is a  UKAid funded program, implemented by Oxford Policy Management, which has worked to empower young women economically in Mozambique’s poorest urban areas since 2015. This blog focuses on two MUVA projects still in operation at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. These two projects for urban young women, a business accelerator and a teacher assistants’ internship and mentorship program, were severely affected by the pandemic triggered lockdown.
  • Project Profile IGNITE: Building Technical Innovation in Nutrition-Sensitive and Gender-Integrated Agriculture – The Impacting Gender & Nutrition through Innovative Technical Exchange in Agriculture (IGNITE) mechanism is a five-year investment implemented by Tanager, Laterite, and 60 Decibels to strengthen African institutions’ ability to integrate nutrition and gender into their way of doing business and their agriculture interventions. All the diagnostic toolkits and updates can be found on the project website.
  • Women and e-commerce in Africa – The report ‘Women and E-commerce in Africa’ by the IFC is the first large-scale use of platform data in the region to inform the extent of women’s participation on e-commerce and how online platforms can benefit women business Developed in partnership with the European Commission, with funding from the Umbrella Fund for Gender Equality and data from one of Africa’s largest platforms, Jumia, the report shows that closing earnings gaps between men and women on e-commerce platforms could add nearly $15 billion to the value of the African e-commerce market.
Development cooperation
  • Global aid increased in 2020, but support for the poorest countries is waning – The latest global aid data released by the OECD shows that aid is at an all-time high, as many donors increased their aid in response to the crisis in 2020. But without better targeting of ODA to where need is greatest, we risk leaving the poorest countries further behind.
  • Removing the Wedge between Process Actors and Knowledge Actors in Development Cooperation: A Step toward More Inclusive and Networked Global Governance – COVID-19 has exacerbated several pre-pandemic trends in international development cooperation—among the most obvious, the weakening of the multilateral system and its subdued response to crises. One manifestation of this trend is the noticeable wedge in the relationship between process actors and knowledge actors in development cooperation governance. This suggests the already-fragmented global development governance arrangements are getting less networked, inclusive, and effective.
  • How is ‘China’ helping to transform ‘Africa’? The need for a more sophisticated debate – There are many different narratives cast around in public and policy debate: China as the new imperial power, China as the radical developmentalist, China as just like any other donor/foreign power. None are very convincing. A report synthesising a number of research projects has been published recently, titled Africa’s economic transformation: the role of Chinese investment, and aims to get beyond the rhetoric and gain a more sophisticated, empirically-based analysis based on substantial UK-funded research efforts over recent years.
COVID-19
  • Covid-19 Diaries – A year of pandemic: No one is safe until everyone is safe – UNICEF has been working closely with the Government of Niger and its partners to increase the procurement and supply of vaccines, train health workers, and tackle trust and misinformation in communities. This report provides important insights into the impact of the pandemic on children in Niger, and highlights actions in health; nutrition; education; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); gender-based violence and social protection sectors.
  • COVID-19 is a developing country pandemic – Contrary to what was shown and believed a year ago, global health has not been subverted. In fact, compared to rich countries, the developing world appears to be facing very similar—if not higher—mortality rates. Its demographic advantage of a younger population may have been entirely offset by higher infection prevalence and age-specific infection fatality.
  • Long-run impact of COVID-19 on extreme poverty – It may be a year or two before the full impact of the pandemic is known. We know that economic recessions drive a rise in poverty, other things being equal. Yet other things were not equal in 2020. Countries responded to the pandemic with large social spending programs to mitigate the worst of the economic shock and keep families afloat. The pandemic might lead to a temporary rise in poverty in some places before returning to its pre-COVID trajectory as growth rates rebound in 2021 and 2022. In other places, however, growth was low pre-COVID-19 and is predicted to be low for the next decade.
  • COVID-19 and economic transformation in rural Zimbabwe – Zimbabwe’s COVID-19 situation looks uncertain, with localised outbreaks and a rise in infections south of the Limpopo in South Africa. This article by Ian Scoones, creator of the Zimbabweland blog, discusses the new restrictions (including the banning of gatherings, the limiting of business hours, a stipulation that offices should only be half full and the prevention of moving to and from ‘hotspots’) which seem like a set-back as things had got largely back to ‘normal’ (whatever that is) in the previous weeks.
Other resources on inclusive development
  • Four reasons why analysis of economic policy and religion go hand-in-hand in sub-Saharan Africa – Religion is not the focus of many policy minded economists studying sub-Saharan Africa; yet, there are important overlaps. The economics of religion is a growing sub-field which provides new tools and theories to explore the ways religious beliefs and practices affect economic outcomes. This policy brief written by Amma Panin aims to convince of the importance of the overlap between religion and policy in sub-Saharan Africa by highlighting recent advances in how economists study religion, with results that touch on institutions, beliefs and governance.
  • From Displacement to Development: How Ethipia Can Create Shared Growth by Facilitating Economic Inclusion for Refugees – This case study is part of the “Let Them Work” initiative by Refugees International (RI) and the Center for Global Development (CGD). It outlines the barriers refugees face in Ethiopia to economic inclusion; the impacts of these barriers; and the steps that the government of Ethiopia, international organizations, donors, and the private sector could take to overcome them.
We encourage anyone from our platform, close network and wider audience to get in touch with recommendations for this reading list and to help us with our goal of sharing and disseminating knowledge. Please mail your suggestions to includeplatform.net with the subject “Contribution to INCLUDE reading list“.

Het bericht Getting up to speed with inclusive development verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

WEBINAR: Development effectiveness from women’s rights and gender equality perspectives

CSO Partnership - 1. Juli 2021 - 8:36

The CSO Partnership for Development Effectiveness (CPDE) – Feminist Group is holding a webinar titled, “Development effectiveness from women’s rights and gender equality perspectives” happening on Monday, 5 July 2021, 5:30PM Bishkek | 1PM Cairo | 4:45PM Kathmandu | 5AM La Paz.

Through the event, the constituency aims to strengthen and deepen feminist lenses in order to make development cooperation work more effective. Speakers include:

Nurgul Dzhanaeva, Global Coordinator of the CPDE Feminist Group, Forum of Women’s NGOs of Kyrgyzstan
Rosa Belen Aguirremezkorta, CPDE FG Europe, Centro de Estudios e Investigacionsobre Mujeres, Spain
Monica Novillo, CPDE Feminist Group Latin America and Caribbean, Coordinadora dela Mujer, Bolivia – A Development Effectiveness: Women’s Organizations Story
Valentina Bodrug, CPDE FG Europe, Gender Centru Platform, Moldova – Get to Know Your Target – Take Action: Engage!
Nevine Ebeid, CPDE FG Middle East and Africa, New Women Foundation, Egypt -Advocating Towards A Feminist Approach to Development Effectiveness. A Call to Action: Your Journey Begins Now!
Patricia Blankson Akakpo, CPDE FG Africa, Network for Women’s Rights in Ghana – Women, development effectiveness and COVID – Feminist Group Response
Shanta Laxmi Shrestha, CPDE FG Asia, Beyond Beijing Committee – FG and its engagement in Generation Equality Action Coalitions.

It is available in English, with interpretation to French, Spanish, and Russian. Sign up here. #

Kategorien: english, Ticker

New publication on collective intelligence for sustainable development

UNSDN - 1. Juli 2021 - 1:34

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Nesta’s Center for Collective Intelligence Design launched the first two reports of its new publication series Collective Intelligence for Sustainable Development: Getting Smarter Together, a comprehensive research over 277 case studies that presents how diverse collective intelligence approaches are being used to speed-up progress on all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

In a world shaken by the COVID-19 pandemic, a whole-of-society approach is fundamental to getting the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development back on track. From citizens’ insights to grassroots solutions, data from mobile phone companies to satellite imagery and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the series shows how new resources of intelligence are being harnessed by organizations around the world to understand complex problems, make better decisions and find new solutions.

The first report Getting Smarter Togetheranalyses and compares the methods and tools used by over 200 global organizations from both the private and public sector sharing examples cutting across all aspects of Agenda 2030. The study discovered 15 methods that are being used most frequently, and often in combination, from crowdsourcing to web scraping and remote sensing. The study also found that Artificial Intelligence is also increasingly being used in parallel, mainly to increase the speed and efficiency of data processing at scale.

The second report 13 Stories from the UNDP Accelerator Labsoffers a deeper dive on the details of some of those groundbreaking approaches deployed by the UNDP Accelerator Labs – from using participatory sensing to understand the informal economy around waste in Viet Nam, to combining multiple datasets to tackle gender-based violence in Mexico and understand the impact of COVID-19 on the food supply chains in Zimbabwe.

“This publication series is more than a mere signpost on our path to building the future of development,” said UNDP Administrator Achim Steiner. “It serves as an invitation and a practical guide for local, national, and international development practitioners to make better use of real-time knowledge creation, collective action and evidence-driven decision making. And ultimately, collective intelligence will serve as a vital tool to help shape a greener, more inclusive, and more sustainable planet”

“These new reports provide global lessons from the front line about the power of collective intelligence methods to help us fast track breakthroughs on the path to 2030,” said Kathy Peach, Director of Centre for Collective Intelligence Design, Nesta.

The Sustainable Development Goals demand financial resources, and they equally require the mobilization of intelligence. This publication series is a call to make it standard practice to channel the innovations, knowledge and contributions of people across the globe, to get serious about the move toward real time data, and to find responsible ways of using artificial intelligence to elevate human intelligence.  If we want to put this planet on a more sustainable & equitable path, we need to get smarter together.

Source: UNDP

Kategorien: english

Link between education and well-being is clear

UNSDN - 1. Juli 2021 - 1:33

With school closures triggered by COVID-19 disrupting both education and access to nutritious meals, two UN agencies on Tuesday launched new measures to help improve the well-being of 1.9 billion school-aged children and adolescents around the world. 

There has been increased stress, anxiety and other mental health issues, while an estimated 365 million primary school students have gone without school meals, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN specialized agency handling education issues, UNESCO.  

Based on a set of eight global benchmarks, Global Standards for Health-promoting Schools, calls for all classrooms to promote life skills, cognitive and socioemotional skills and healthy lifestyles for learners.   

“These newly launched global standards are designed to create schools that nurture education and health, and that equip students with the knowledge and skills for their future health and well-being, employability and life prospects”, said WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.  

Linking schools and health 

Clear evidence shows that comprehensive health and nutrition programmes in schools, have significant impacts among students.  

“Schools play a vital role in the well-being of students, families and their communities, and the link between education and health has never been more evident”, Tedros added. 

The new standards, which will be piloted in Botswana, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya and Paraguay, contribute to WHO’s target of making one billion people healthier by 2023 and the global Education 2030 Agenda coordinated by UNESCO.  

“Education and health are interdependent basic human rights for all, at the core of any human right, and essential to social and economic development”, said UNESCO Director General, Audrey Azouley.   

Making the case 

School health and nutrition interventions in low-income areas where impediments such as parasitic worms or anemia are prevalent, can lead to 2.5 years of additional schooling, according to the UN agencies. 

Moreover, malaria prevention interventions can result in a 62 per cent reduction in absenteeism; nutritious school meals upped enrolment rates by nine per cent, and attendance by eight per cent on average; and free screening and eyeglasses have raised the probability of students passing standardized reading and math tests by five per cent.  

And promoting handwashing has cut gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses between 21 and 61 per cent in low income countries, resulting in fewer absentees.  

“A school that is not health-promoting is no longer justifiable and acceptable”, said Ms. Azouley.   

Promote health in schools 

Comprehensive sex education encourages healthier behaviour, promotes sexual and reproductive health and rights, and improves outcomes such as a reduction in HIV infection and adolescent pregnancies, WHO and UNESCO said. 

A school that is not health-promoting is no longer justifiable and acceptable — UNESCO chief

By enhancing water and sanitation (WASH) services and supplies in school, as well as educating on menstrual hygiene, girls can maintain themselves with dignity and may even miss less school while menstruating. 

“I call for all of us to affirm our commitment and role, to make every school a health-promoting school”, underscored the UNESCO chief. 

Upping the standards 

The Health Promoting Schools approach was introduced by WHO, UNESCO and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in 1995 and adopted in over 90 countries and territories.   

However, only a small number of countries have implemented it at scale, and even fewer have effectively adapted their education systems to include health promotion. 

Source: UN News

Kategorien: english

COVID-19: First mRNA vaccine tech transfer hub

UNSDN - 1. Juli 2021 - 1:30

The World Health Organization (WHO) is supporting a South African consortium in establishing the first COVID-19 mRNA vaccine technology transfer hub, the UN agency announced on Monday. 

The facility will allow manufacturers from developing countries to receive training in how to produce vaccines, and the relevant licenses to do so, as part of global efforts to scale-up access to lifesaving treatments. 

The development follows WHO’s call in April for public and private companies to express their interest in creating technology transfer hubs so that low and middle-income countries could meet their urgent need for vaccines, amid critical shortages. 

‘A key moment’ 

“Today’s announcement is a great step forward for South Africa, and for the world. I hope this will be a key moment for increasing production capacity in Africa for COVID-19 vaccines, but also for future vaccines”, said WHO chief Tedros Adhamon Ghebreyesus, speaking during his bi-weekly media briefing from Geneva. 

Messenger RNA, or mRNA technology, instructs cells to make a protein that generates an immune response in the body, thus producing the antibodies that provide protection against a disease. 

It is the basis for the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines being used by governments worldwide, and in the UN-supported COVAX global vaccine solidarity initiative. 

“It’s potentially easier to scale than other vaccine technologies and could be faster and easier to adapt to variants of concern”, Tedros said.

The South African consortium involves a biotech company called Afrigen Biologics and Vaccines, which will act as the hub by manufacturing mRNA vaccines and providing training to another manufacturer called Biovac.   

WHO’s role includes establishing the criteria for the technology transfer, assessing applications and developing standards, while the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, will provide guidance through the Partnership for African Vaccines Manufacturing. 

Changing the narrative  

South African President Cyril Ramaphosa underlined the importance of the hub for the continent. 

“The ability to manufacture vaccines, medicines and other health-related commodities will help put Africa on a path to self-determination”, he said, speaking via video link.  

“Through this initiative and others, we will change the narrative of an Africa that is a centre of disease and poor development. We will create a narrative that celebrates our successes in reducing the burden of disease, in advancing self-reliance, and also advancing sustainable development.” 

Highs and lows 

The announcement of the hub, with others in the pipeline, comes as COVID-19 cases worldwide decline for an eighth week in a row, and as deaths have dropped over the past seven weeks, consecutively. 

While welcoming the good news, Tedros said new infections and deaths remain high globally, with more than 2.5 million cases and 64,000 deaths reported last week. 

The rate of decline has slowed in most regions, and every region has countries that are witnessing a rapid increase in caseloads and deaths.  In Africa, cases and deaths increased by almost 40 per cent in the past week, while some countries have seen their numbers tripled or quadrupled. 

“While a handful of countries have high vaccination rates and are now seeing lower numbers of hospitalisations and deaths, other countries in Africa, the Americas and Asia are now facing steep epidemics”, Tedros said, adding that these cases and deaths are largely avoidable. 

Several factors are driving increases, including increased spread of virus variants of concern, more socializing, ineffective use of public health and social measures, and vaccine inequity. 

“The inequitable access to vaccines has demonstrated that in a crisis, low-income countries cannot rely on vaccine-producing countries to supply their needs”, he said. 

WHO continues to push for greater sharing of knowledge, technology and licenses to boost vaccine manufacturing, and for the waiver of related intellectual property rights.

Source: UN News

Kategorien: english

The growing role of the private sector in development co-operation: challenges for global governance

OECD - 30. Juni 2021 - 17:17
Today, the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change both illustrate a growing and urgent need for the provision of global public goods. As these public goods expand in number but become relatively more affordable, they can be provided by certain private corporations that enjoy enhanced market power. Development partnerships and governance structures which include the private sector may also become demonstrably both more legitimate and more efficient than those set-up solely between governments, which are seen as less inclusive, highly bureaucratised and slow-moving.
Kategorien: english

What's the future of humanitarian action? Part 3

Devex - 30. Juni 2021 - 14:32
Kategorien: english

Food Consumption Behaviours in Europe – Drivers and Trends

SCP-Centre - 30. Juni 2021 - 9:13

Why do European consumers buy food the way they do? Which key factors drive Europeans’ food consumption patterns and how could they be used to create pathways toward sustainability? The VALUMICS project’s evidence-based report provides insights to what influences consumers the most in their food choices.

The report ‘Food consumption behaviours in Europe’ brings together data across various countries, such as the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Italy. Through in-depth literature research, focus groups and expert consultations, the report provides a better understanding of the status quo, trends, motivations as well as barriers and opportunities towards more sustainable food consumption behaviours in general. The focus is on five product categories: Beef, dairy, salmon, tomatoes and bread.

Findings indicate that food consumption behaviours can be largely attributed to price considerations, family eating habits, health concerns or social contexts of consumers. The report highlights that environmental awareness and values play little to no role in the consumption patterns.

“Certain changes can only be made by politics, or the EU in this case, which should impose high sustainability limits and standards: for example, banning disposable plastics is a good start. Until certain management practices are allowed, it is difficult to behave more sustainably because everyone else can be more economically competitive” noted one of the experts interviewed for the report.

Other actions suggested in the report include fostering stronger communication channels between producers and consumers, with the potential for increasing the resilience of food value chains as well as using behavioural insights to inform strategies and action plans for more sustainable food consumption.

The report ’Food consumption behaviours in Europe’ is the first in a series of VALUMICS publications focusing on analysing food consumption. The upcoming reports look into successful interventions for sustainable food behaviour, multi-stakeholder recommendations toward more sustainable food consumption, and food retailer interventions to support this shift.

To find out more and explore further European citizens’ mindsets and food consumption patterns read the full report here.

For further questions, please contact Cristina Fedato.

Der Beitrag Food Consumption Behaviours in Europe – Drivers and Trends erschien zuerst auf CSCP gGmbH.

Kategorien: english, Ticker

COVID-19 impact on tourism could deal $4 trillion blow to global economy: UN report

UN ECOSOC - 30. Juni 2021 - 7:10
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism could result in a more than $4 trillion loss to the global economy, UN trade and development body UNCTAD said on Wednesday in a report issued jointly with the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 
Kategorien: english

Addressing youth unemployment in Ghana by supporting the agro-processing and tourism sectors

Brookings - 30. Juni 2021 - 0:12

By Ernest Aryeetey, Priscilla Twumasi Baffour, Festus Ebo Turkson

As elsewhere in Africa, the issue of jobless growth in Ghana has become a major concern, particularly due to rising unemployment among the youth. Services have emerged as the driver of growth in Ghana, contrary to the experiences in East Asia and other newly industrialized countries where manufacturing exports led growth and added capacity to absorb low- to medium-skilled workers. In fact, in Ghana, manufacturing has performed abysmally, with an average growth rate of 3.2 percent between 2008 to 2017.

Despite the generally strong performance of the Ghanaian economy over the last two decades, (albeit with a slowdown in recent times), there is a disconnect between GDP growth and employment—a trend that has persisted for many years, as the country has averaged an employment-to-growth elasticity of 0.5 over the last two decades. However, recent evidence points to the role of emerging high-productivity sectors, such as agro-processing, tourism, and horticulture, among others, that share characteristics with manufacturing (particularly in the employment of low- to medium-skilled workforce), in solving the youth unemployment challenge through the generation of decent jobs in Ghana.

Thus, to examine how Ghana might best leverage recent growth trends for job creation, we recently published a paper identifying which of these sectors might play this role in Ghana. This research is part of a larger, multicountry project on policies for enabling “industries without smokestacks” (IWOSS) to both grow and absorb low-skilled labor. (For more on this project, see “Exploring new sources of large-scale job creation: The potential role of Industries Without Smokestacks.”)

The state of the Ghanaian economy

The Ghanaian economy’s strong performance over the last two decades has not translated into job creation nor improvements in employment conditions, especially for the country’s growing youth population (Figure 1). Moreover, the country’s traditional reliance on primary commodities—notably gold, cocoa, and, more recently, oil—for exports has exposed it to international commodity price fluctuations, making the need for diversification and structural transformation more urgent.

Figure 1. GDP growth and employment in Ghana

Source: Authors’ illustration based on data from WDI.

With an average national unemployment rate of about 6 percent, unemployment among the youth (persons aged 15-35) is much higher at 12.1 percent with an additional 28 percent out of the labor force as discouraged workers. In the absence of unemployment benefits in the country, unemployment is simply not an option for most people, particularly the youth who often turn to the informal sector to earn an income. In fact, 1 in 3 young people in Ghana are self-employed in the nonagricultural sector as own-account workers in vulnerable jobs.

Employment projections show IWOSS sectors will dominate employment in the future

In our paper, we find that IWOSS sectors—particularly agro-processing and horticulture, transport and storage, hotels and restaurants (tourism), and construction—will contribute a little above 50 percent to total employment by 2035 (see Table 1).

Table 1. Employment in IWOSS and non-IWOSS (2017-2035)

Note: This table is a truncated version of Table 20 in the full paper.
Source: Authors’ calculations based on National Income Accounts (published by the Ghana Statistical Service), GLSS V and GLSS VI, National Budget and Economic Policy Statements. See Appendix C for the Methodology used in the projections to 2035.

The job creation potential of agro-processing and tourism

In our research, we identify agro-processing and tourism as the IWOSS sectors best poised to address this challenge in Ghana because of their high employment generation potential and the demand for low to moderate skills—a feature that is consistent with the skills spectrum of the unemployment pool in the country. Indeed, the prospects for both agro-processing and tourism sectors in Ghana are high in terms of growth and other positive spillover effects with opportunities for job creation. The agro-processing industry is dominated by micro and small firms involved in value-addition along the agricultural value chain in horticultural products, vegetables, roots and tubers, and palm oil for both domestic and foreign markets. In the area of tourism, Ghana has several natural, cultural, and heritage resources (e.g., historical forts and castles), national parks, a beautiful coastline, and unique art and cultural traditions that can be a source of great attraction to the international community.

1 in 3 young people in Ghana are self-employed in the nonagricultural sector as own-account workers in vulnerable jobs.

Moreover, these IWOSS sectors have been strategically targeted under the government’s flagship industrial transformation program to address challenges of job creation, promote import substitution, increase revenues from exports, and boost rural income generation.

What skills are required to develop the IWOSS sectors?

Despite this promise, though, a number of obstacles stand in the way of these sectors’ growth and ability to absorb jobs. Prominent among these challenges is the persistent skills gap among the youth: Our projections generally suggest that low-skilled jobs (i.e., those requiring less than secondary education) will continue to dominate, and their importance may decline only marginally. Thus, we find that deliberate public effort is required to ensure the youth can be absorbed in the IWOSS sectors, which requires upskilling.

To better understand the nuances of these gaps, we conducted a survey with a sample of firms in agro-processing and tourism in which we inquired into requisite skills for potential employees. Results from the survey show that most employees possess basic and social skills, which conveniently meet the needs of employers. Conversely, system skills—developed capacities used to understand, monitor, and improve sociotechnical systems and also sorely needed by employers—were found to be lacking in both tourism and agro-processing firm employees. Figure 2 reveals the differences between the current skill level of workers and employers’ expectations.

Figure 2. Skills deficit in tourism and agro-processing firms

Source: Authors’ calculations based on survey data.

Importantly, given that surveyed firms largely reported that digital skills like data management and analytics, production management, mobile transactions, and social selling (in agro-processing), and online communication and mobile transactions (in tourism) will be vital to future employees, policymakers must strive to better incorporate such capacity building into curricula.

Unlocking growth potential of IWOSS and overcoming skills gaps

In order to unearth the employment generation capacity of IWOSS sectors, key constraints that inhibit the growth of these sectors have to be addressed. In the case of firms in tourism, such constraints include tax rates, policies, and administration; access to credit; and electricity supply. For firms in the agro-processing sector, these constraints include electricity supply, access to credit, unfair practices of informal competitors, and customs and trade regulations.

First, we recommend an overhaul of the overall policy environment toward the training of young people in the requisite skills to be productive in all sectors of the economy. More specifically, the government must prioritize and increase enrollment into technical and vocational education and training (TVET) for hands-on employable skills to support growth and provide a pathway for sustainable employment for young people.

Second, the establishment of industrial parks, which is based on the positive spillover effects and upstream and downstream linkages associated with clustering and agglomeration, is often acknowledged to be essential for industrial development. Support to the private sector by the Ghana Free Zones Authority and Ghana Investment Promotion Centre for the establishment of industrial park infrastructure and special economic zones is anchored on such potential benefits.

Third, we recommend the strategic development of infrastructure as a critical stimulus to the drive for diversification and industrialization in the country.  Fourth, government should intensify efforts at providing long-term financing to support the value chains of these sectors and upgrade them to address the issue of IWOSS firms not being well advanced, with a relatively low degree of value-addition by all firms at various stages.

In the end, we find that the agro-processing and tourism sectors can be critical for addressing the country’s jobless growth challenges, if interventions like improved infrastructure, better access to long-term financing, and enhanced digitization, among others, can be implemented. These efforts must be complemented with various incentives to local firms as well as institutional arrangements to increase local demand. (See the paper for a full list of policy recommendations.) Finally, given the increasing importance of technologies in both agro-processing and tourism, the country must invest in complementary digitalization for actors to adapt and be competitive in the changing nature of work globally.

      
Kategorien: english

Employment creation potential, labor skills requirements, and skill gaps for young people: Ghana case study

Brookings - 29. Juni 2021 - 23:55

By Ernest Aryeetey, Priscilla Twumasi Baffour, Festus Ebo Turkson

Abstract

The issues of jobless growth and the poor performance of manufacturing have become major concerns in Africa. A new growth trajectory has emerged in the region with services as the driver of growth, contrary to the expectations of manufacturing export-led transformation with the capacity to absorb low- to medium-skilled workers as previously observed in East Asia and other newly industrialized countries. It has become imperative for African countries, such as Ghana, to redirect attention toward identifying and supporting sectors with more significant employment potentials, in the quest to provide decent employment for a rapidly growing population, especially the youth. Indeed, the challenge of jobless growth in Ghana has brought to fore the need to diversify the economy away from mineral dependence through industrial transformation, mindful of the new technological developments. In this report, “industries without smokestacks” (IWOSS) the Ghana case study identified agro-processing and tourism as two of the sectors that could be relied on to potentially address the country’s jobless growth issue and enhance the competitiveness and productivity of small and medium-sized firms.

The report has demonstrated that both the agro-processing and tourism sectors have several characteristics that make them unique to the situation of Ghana:

  1. There is an improved regulatory environment for both sectors, and this is supported by various public policies to improve related infrastructure and unearth the potential in the two sectors.
  2. Both sectors offer critical employment avenues for the youth with at least secondary education, and this pool can be found among the relatively large unemployed individuals.
  3. Both sectors have a huge export capacity, and this is critical in enhancing competition.
  4. The technologies used in both sectors are labor intensive, and this has prospect in addressing the country’s unemployment challenge.
  5. There has been some effort to address various constraints in the value chains of both sectors.

Projecting into the future, we find agro-processing and tourism (hotels and restaurants) will experience a much higher annual employment growth than manufacturing and other non-IWOSS sectors by 2035. Although skill transformation of the workforce will mainly take place in non-IWOSS sectors, our projections to 2035 suggest that the IWOSS sectors in Ghana would generate more high-skilled jobs in an economy that will continue to be dominated by low-skilled workers.

Overall, constraints identified in agro-processing and tourism subsectors include the lack of adequately skilled labor, lack of access to credit facilities, inadequate infrastructure, cost of electricity, limited capacity to export, and restrictive/cumbersome regulatory environment. Specific constraints identified in the limited survey conducted on selected firms within the IWOSS sector highlight the lack of skills that are critical to the operations of IWOSS sectors (agro-processing and tourism) with the specific skills being systems skills, technical skills, and problem-solving skills. Based on this, it is recommended that a deliberate effort is made to address these various challenges to enhance the potential of the two sectors.

Download the full working paper

 

      
Kategorien: english

Generation Equality: Alongside COVID lies an ‘equally horrific pandemic’ threatening women

UN #SDG News - 29. Juni 2021 - 21:02
As the world grapples unevenly with the effects of COVID-19, “a parallel and equally horrific pandemic” has threatened half the world’s population, the UN chief said on Tuesday, in the lead up to the Generation Equality Forum in France.
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