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The Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa is headquartered in Dakar Senegal. It was established in 1973 as an independent Pan-African research organisation with a primary focus on the social sciences, broadly defined. It is recognised not only as the pioneer African social research organisation but also as the apex non-governmental centre of social knowledge production on the continent
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CODESRIA Bulletin Online, No. 5, July 2020 - Structural Change, Inequality and Inclusive Development: Case of Sub-Saharan Africa

6. Juli 2020 - 11:00

Jimi O. Adesina*,
College of Graduate Studies,
University of South Africa,
City of Tshwane, South Africa

Épidémiologie de l'économie et confinement de l'organisation COVID-19

3. Juli 2020 - 16:07


Préface du Pr TOUNA MAMA

Sommaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Préface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Introduction générale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

I: Physionomies de l'épreuve socio-économique de la Covid-19 19

Chapitre 1
Grande palabre croisée de la pandémie : une Covid-19 en cache d'autres. Élaborations socio-culturelles
Cécile Renée Bonono-Momnougui. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..21

Chapitre 2
Risque sanitaire et rationalité des agents économiques : Cas de la Covid-19
Thérèse Félicitée Azeng. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

Chapitre 3
Facteurs explicatifs de la résistance à l'adoption des Gestes-Barrières face à la propagation de la Covid-19 : une étude en contexte camerounais.
Altante Désirée Biboum ; Aymard Landry Essono . . . . . . . . . . .49

Chapitre 4
L'automédication en temps de pandémie à la Covid-19
Abba Bilguissou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63

Chapitre 5
Confance aux institutions et rôle des réseaux sociaux numériques en contexte de coronavirus au Cameroun
Sidonie Djofack, Jocelyne Emmanuelle Bien A Ngon . . . . . . . . . .83

Chapitre 6
Des organisations agiles face à la Covid-19… oui ! Mais avant tout, des cerveaux agiles !
M'bouna Murielle Natacha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99

Chapitre 7
Stimulants organisationnels et RH engagées : analyse des enjeux dans le secteur public hospitalier en contexte de crise Covid-19
Claudette Anega Nkoa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

II Analyse-diagnostic de l'organisation confnée en raison de la Covid-19 .........125

Chapitre 8
Échanges du Cameroun en Afrique à l'épreuve de la Covid-19
Françoise Okah Efogo ; Crescence Marie-France Okah Atenga . . 127

Chapitre 9
Télétravail et management à distance : quelles compétences pour les managers et les employés ?
Gilles Célestin Etoundi Eloundou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

Chapitre 10
Adaptation des entreprises à la pandémie de la Covid-19 : éclairage à partir de la théorie institutionnelle
Viviane Ondoua Biwolé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Chapitre 11
Distanciation sociale contre le principe de proximité dans les unités de production informelle (UPI) en contexte de lutte contre la Covid-19
Sabine Patricia Moungou Mbenda, Athanase Roger Meyong Abath 177

Chapitre 12
Les Fake News sur le Coronavirus SARS-COV2 de 2019 : quel impact sur les décisions des dirigeants des PME camerounaises
Roulie Niquaise Eva'ah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

Chapitre 13
La confance du consommateur à l'épreuve de la Covid : une analyse au prisme de la RSE
Sigismond Hervey Mvele . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Appendice: commentaires libres 237

Crise sanitaire de la Covid-19, crise du budget de l'État : pour un retournement de perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Jean Pierre Mbenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Gestion de la Covid-19 et cadre d'action de Sendai : quelles leçons . . . . . . . . . . 245
Deforine Grâce Manga Essama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
Contributeurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Mesures prises le 17 mars 2020 par le Gouvernement dans le cadre de la riposte à la Covid-19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263

A Call to Defend Democracy

25. Juni 2020 - 14:35

With more than 500 political leaders and leading pro-democracy institutions from around the world, CODESRIA is a signatory to a joint declaration warning that democracy is under threat and must be defended.

Join the movement!

Call for Papers: Women in Politics

19. Juni 2020 - 19:05

The struggle for women's participation in public affairs and the political life of their countries as equal actors has been an enduring feature of the entire period since independence in Africa.

From being integral players in the mass mobilisation and campaigns, both civic and armed, that ushered the countries of the continent to independence, women were subsequently to be relegated to the margins of the state and nation-building efforts that were embarked upon by a succession of regimes soon after national political freedom from formal and direct colonial rule had been won. Across the continent, women and their concerns were consigned to a residual category in various aspects of national life on arguments that ranged from the outrightly outrageous, unedifying, and embarrassing to the patently ignorant, mischievous, and frivolous.

These arguments purported invariably to explain why women could not be entrusted with public responsibilities and roles as full and equal participants and citizens. They continue to be deployed even to this day, more than six decades after the first African country became independent and despite a massive campaign of awareness underwritten by women and their organizations. Though mostly packaged and justified on grounds of culture, tradition, and religion, the arguments in fact reflect and bear the hallmarks of an embedded patriarchy and the relations of power woven into it that have always instinctively privileged men over women in politics, the economy and society.

Over the years since independence, it has been the historic responsibility of women to exercise agency and organize themselves and others to try to contest and overcome marginalisation, discrimination, stigma and domination. They have done so to building local and global alliances and using a variety of strategies and tactics. Within individual countries, despite an unevenness of organizational capacity and results obtained, many have worked alone and together to mobilise opinion and action in order to push the case and leverage opportunities for better and greater voice, presence, and participation in the public domain and in decision-making. Through the various women's organizations they created to press for change towards a more inclusive system of governance in which they are able and enabled to play an equal role, successes were registered in forcing open the door of patriarchy even if progress has remained slow and uneven within and across different countries. From spirited and sustained campaigns in support of the education of the girl-child and against such harmful “traditional” practices as female genital incision and breast pressing to intense advocacy for a greater gender diversity in public administration, the formal/organized private sector, and party politics, indefatigable struggles were waged to tame and overcome the worst forms of patriarchy.

As it pertains specifically to their political participation, the thrust of much of the struggles waged by successive generations of women over the years has been, in an incremental manner, first to overcome total exclusion and cynical tokenism and then strive towards winning a seat by right at the table of decision-making with full powers and on equal terms. Arguments deployed to justify locking women out of political participation, including the notion that the place of the “decent” woman is in the house—were confronted head on with counter-arguments demonstrating just how political the personal also is. The idea that women are only good for adding colour to and entertaining audiences at political rallies with dances or being lined up on election day to vote as directed by political barons was roundly challenged as was the resort by male political leaders to offering token appointments to women in a bid, mostly cynical, to satisfy appearances but not necessarily change anything in relation to the asymmetries of power that exclude and penalise women. As counterarguments, women's rights activists lost no opportunity to note that the male domination of politics in Africa has fed political violence and instability and corruption and mismanagement, among many other ills that have plagued the continent since independence. Suggestions have been made frequently enough that women, if opportuned, might just do a much better job than the male politicians.

Campaigns for political reform and change waged domestically in various countries by women and their organizations were also extended to the regional and international levels using all available platforms and opportunities. Particularly significant in this regard were the platforms offered by the United Nations (UN) family of organizations, the African Union (AU) and the various African Regional Economic Communities. From the 1994 Cairo UN Population Conference to the 1995 Beijing Conference to the AU's 2003 Maputo Conference and the 2008 SADC summit, decisions were adopted on these various platforms and occasions that boosted the campaign by women for greater and more equal political participation as much in local affairs as in continental and global affairs. The UN Millenium Development Goals and their successor Sustainable Development Goals were deliberately leveraged too to advance the local and global causes for women's equality. Thus, it was that a spate of policy commitments and conventions came to be adopted and which, today, despite their limitations, serve as a useful framework for measuring and assessing progress within and among nations. Some of the targets set at the Beijing Conference and those included in such outcome documents as the AU's Maputo Declaration and the SADC Gender Protocol have, thanks primarily to the efforts of women themselves, been refracted back into domestic political and policy processes and taken further, with success in some instances, towards a “50-50” and “Zebra” agenda for the equal participation of women. The gender equality aspirations of women, including their better representation in parliament, have also been written into the national constitutions of several countries and become embedded in the policy practices of the AU and the RECs.

There is no doubt that, today, Africa boasts a growing number of countries where the representation and participation of women in politics has registered significant progress, with Rwanda standing out as one of the very best performers on a global scale. Rwanda is not alone; Kenya, Namibia, Senegal and South Africa are among the countries that have also registered and even sustained major progress. However, despite the progress that has been made, few will doubt that much more remains to be done even as efforts need to continue to be invested to ensure that the progress registered is not reversed and the women who enter into decision-making institutions are empowered to play their role in full. It is here that this research project has been deemed necessary as a contribution to both achieving a better understanding of the dynamics of women's political participation and contributing to its further deepening and advancement. The need for such a project is further underlined by the unspoken but widespread assumption that a huge proportion of women in political office function mostly as "flower girls", to use a Kenyan parlance, who merely serve "decorative" purposes in places such as parliament whilst religiously doing the bidding of the party, the political godfather, or the president.

The project aims, at a broad level, to undertake an assessment of the extent to which women who have gained a significant entry into institutions of power and decision-making have been effective in advocating and advancing the agenda of women's equality in Africa. More specifically, the project seeks to :

a. Better understand the motivation and agendas that propel women who participate in politics and succeed in winning an entry into the mainstream of the political processes and institutions of their countries;
b. Examine the interfaces, if any, between the agendas of the women in politics and the specific goal of advancing the equality of women in society generally and political decision-making in particular;
c. Explore the dominant influences on women in active political positions that shape the choices which they make as actresses alongside other players in the governance system;
d. Assess the connections between the broader societal and citizen concerns articulated by the women in active political and decision-making and the advancement of the interests of women; and
e. Identify similarities and differences in the political engagements and gender equality agendas of directly elected and nominated female members of parliament with a view to drawing comparative observations about their performance.

Prospective participants in the project are invited to submit an abstract of not more than two pages clearly outlining the specific component of the objectives of the research they wish to engage with and how they intend to do so. Authors of abstracts accepted will be invited to develop full papers for further consideration. Preference will be given to abstracts and papers that are grounded in solid field work and backed with empirical data. Out of the papers, a book on the contemporary politics of women's participation in Africa will be published and a set of policy recommendation will also be issued separately for use in further refining policies and campaigns.


  • Abstracts will be received up to 15 July 2020.
  • The draft papers of authors of shortlisted abstracts will be required by 30 September 2020.
  • Final revised papers for peer review and publication will be expected by 30 October 2020.

Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA)

All abstracts should be sent by email to: with a copy to

In Search of Africa(s): Postcolonialism and the Univers

17. Juni 2020 - 17:21

Souleymane Bachir Diagne is a philosopher based at Columbia University. His talk will refect on a new co-authored dialogue between himself and the Africanist anthropologist Jean-Loup Amselle, In Search of Africa(s): Universalism and Decolonial Thought (2020).

The Other Universals consortium will be hosting a series of online seminars over the next few months. These talks will draw on political and aesthetic archives of emancipatory projects of the global south. They will examine radical traditions and ideas of expansive citizenship that have emerged in the colonial and postcolonial modern. Particular focus will be on idioms of difference, which defne insider and outsider, majority and minority, how these emerged, were negotiated and transcended.

18th June 3 PM SAST (GMT+2)

  • Ethiopia @ 16:00 EAT (UTC+3)
  • Ghana @ 13:00 GMT (UTC+0)
  • Uganda @ 16:00 EAT (UTC+3)
  • Lebanon @ 16:00 EEST (UTC+3)
  • Barbados @ 09:00 AST (UTC- 4)
  • US East Coast @ 09:00 EDT (UTC-4)

Register by June 14th to:

Online Article: Is the Messenger the Message? Notes on Nicoli Nattrass' ‘Commentary'

16. Juni 2020 - 17:15

Jimi O. Adesina* (PhD), College of Graduate Studies,
University of South Africa,
Pretoria, South Africa


1. Juni 2020 - 17:55

In March, the Council shared with the CODESRIA community a quarterly update from the Secretariat. That update came a few days before the lockdown following the rapid spread of COVID-19 virus. The Council subsequently issued a COVID-19 specific update outlining measures that remain in force and will continue to be until we have clarity from the Government of the Republic of Senegal on the way forward. Our actions will also be guided by developments elsewhere in the continent and our reading of the international context regarding mitigation and containment of the COVID-19 virus.

As a premier research institution, our responsibility is to be part of those defining the intellectual responses the continent needs to deal with the COVID-19 crisis. As part of our research work, we continue to observe and listen to emerging voices even as we analyse diverse professional views. We have however preferred caution and a broad based reflection in the knowledge that like other crises that have faced the continent before, this one will also require long-term structured thinking based on the gravity of the challenge the virus poses to development strategies on the continent in the short and, especially, long-term.

The cautious approach, informed by a consideration of longer term analysis of trends, is necessary given that several publicly cited models and opinions have been wild, based on unverified assumptions that occasionally are coupled by a narrow focus on epidemiology. While this focus is necessary and indeed defensible, the retreat into perceiving the virus strictly in medical terms is a dangerously narrow analytical tunnel that we, as social science and humanities scholars ought to assess and expand. As it has been pointed many times over, the capacity to deal with the pandemic depends on what we did before the pandemic; it depends on responses that view it as a socio-political and economic challenge rather than a strictly clinical problem. As such, there are broad governance and social policy questions COVID-19 has raised that the Council will start addressing, building our intervention on work the Council has undertaken before through the annual convening of the Institute on Health, Politics and Society in Africa.

In the previous quarterly update, we also focused on the challenges in the CODESRIA Publications' Programme and the steps we were taking to resolve them. Admittedly, in 2019, due to challenges internal to the Secretariat, a new backlog of publications developed particularly with CODESRIA Bulletin, Africa Development, Journal of Higher Education in Africa and Africa Review of Books (ARB). Other publications like African Sociological Review (ASR) have continued to be up-to-date while Afrika Zamani and Identity, Culture and Politics: Afro-Asiatic Dialogue (ICP) already had an old backlog.

The Council is working with the editor of ASR to improve its quality. The backlog with Afrika Zamani has been resolved with the publication of the 2019 issue. Following discussions with the President of the Association of African Historians, the Council has handed back the management of the journal to the Association and committed, if requested, to continue supporting the journal and expanding it. The backlog with ICP will be resolved by July 2020 with the publication of vol. 20, Nos 1&2, 2019. Vol. 18 (2017) and vol. 19 (2018) have already been published. Further plans for ICP and ARB will be communicated at a later stage.

Rapid progress has been made to deal with the backlog for Africa Development and CODESRIA Bulletin. In July 2020, Africa Development, vol. 45, Nos 1 and 2 (2020) will be published bringing the journal up-to-date. A progress report on Journal for Higher Education in Africa will be shared in the next quarterly report, but work is in progress to publish No 1&2 of 2019 and peer review of articles for No 1 of 2020 has commenced.

CODESRIA Bulletin will go through some changes. This is following the rapid progress made to finalise the backlog left in 2019. The first 4 issues of the Bulletin are at an advanced stage of completion and will be released in quick succession in June 2020. The first issue discusses the controversies surrounding randomized control trials generated by the 2019 Nobel Prize in Economics, while Nos 2&3 is a special double issue with tributes to the late Thandika Mkandawire, CODESRIA's third Executive Secretary. Issue No 4 is a special issue with essays on COVID-19.

Given the speed with which the Council has been able to finalise the backlog and simultaneously prepare the Bulletin for 2020, we are making two major changes in the way the Bulletin has been published.

  • a. All key essays in the Bulletin published in English or French will be translated and republished in a subsequent issue of the Bulletin in the other language. Depending on how this works, we plan to start publishing a Portuguese edition in 2021/22.
  • b. From 2020, we plan to publish six (6) instead of the usual four (4) issues of the Bulletin annually.

Finally, with the forthcoming launch of a new CODESRIA website, it is time to take the Bulletin online and open it up for engagement by the community. We therefore will have a page on the website for CODESRIA Bulletin Online starting July 2020. The page will be dedicated to disseminating, within one week of submission, pieces submitted to the Bulletin for publication. A limited edition of excellent essays and debates from the online pages will be republished in hardcopy. The online page will also have a blog and space for commentaries from the community. The aim is to re-active the spirit of debate that animated the CODESRIA community.

Our plea to the community is to re-engage the Bulletin more intensely by sending in provocative think-pieces and providing reasoned commentary and rebuttals to published articles. We hope to recapture the spirit of debate and we will rely on you to make the new CODESRIA Bulletin a lively space for vibrant debate.

1st June 2020

Jacques Kazadi Nduba wa Dile, 1936-2020: A Pioneering CODESRIA Academic Voice

27. April 2020 - 16:02

Death has struck again. Prof Jacques Kazadi Nduba wa Dile, CODESRIA's founding president passed on Thursday, 23rd April 2020 in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Prof. Kazadi Nduba's funeral was held on Saturday, 25th April 2020 in Kinshasa. The sad news of Prof Kazadi's death would not have happened at a worse time. There is the restricting circumstance imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. But over the last year, the Council has been reflecting on the best way to rededicate its mission in honour of and to the memory of its founding Executive Secretary, Prof. Samir Amin, who passed on in 2018. Prof. Kazadi's passing also comes at a time when the Council is still mourning the death of its third Executive Secretary, Prof. Thandika Mkandawire. This trio and their foresight represent the crucible in which the Council's mission has been nested and nurtured over the last four decades.

Prof. Kazadi Nduba was elected to the Executive Committee of CODESRIA in 1973 at the first General Assembly of the Council. He served until 1976. The context of Prof. Kazadi Nduba's Presidency of the Council was different from what we know it currently. That context was only possible because Prof. Kazadi Nduba was, apart from being the first president of CODESRIA, a man of firsts. Born Jacques Simon Kazadi Nduba wa Dile on 23rd December 1936 in Luluabourg (Kananga), he studied for his secondary school at Collège Saint Joseph in Luluabourg and proceeded for his higher education at the Université Lovanium, a Catholic Jesuit university in Kinshasa in what was then the Belgian Congo. Prof. Kazadi Nduba then left in 1967 for Belgium to study for his PhD in economics (economic science) at the University of Louvain. He graduated in 1971. Upon graduation, Prof. Kazadi Nduba taught in a number of universities around the world including at the University of Kinshasa in his own home country of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where he rose to be the first black Dean of the Faculty of Economics. He also taught at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Prof. Kazadi Nduba had his networking right to have become the first president of CODESRIA. Recall that at its inception, CODESRIA was established as a Conference of Directors of Economic and Social Research Institution in Africa. Later, the Conference gave way to an institution, initially domiciled at the UN African Institute for Economic Planning and Development (IDEP) in Dakar, and renamed Council of Directors of Economic and Social Research Institution in Africa. It was not until much later that the Council acquired its current name as the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa. In these three iterations, the institutions name was abbreviated as CODESRIA. But the Council's membership remained institutional until 1992 when the General Assembly took the decision to open up to individual membership. As such, Prof. Kazadi Nduba led CODESRIA at a time when its membership was strictly institutional, even if the urge and pressure to open up this membership to individuals was felt. Having risen to the inaugural presidency of the Council and stewarding it to what it currently is speaks to Prof. Kazadi Nduba's intellectual persuasions and administrative skill. Prof. Kazadi Nduba was not just a fine economist and Professor, he, like many intellectuals of his time in DRC, engaged politically serving in the position as Treasurer of the Mouvement populaire de la Révolution.

As an academic, Prof. Kazadi Nduba remained prolific even as he battled illness. Among his publications are Problématique de l'application du SMIG (2004); Politique salariale dans la fonction publique (2007) and L'entreprise privée nationale et la gestion moderne (2008).

Prof. Kazadi Nduba's passing on marks an epochal transition in CODESRIA, an epoch calling upon us to reflect as we prepare for the golden Jubilee and lay the foundation for another half century of intellectual investments in humanities and social science research for Africa. We will as a community carry the memory of Prof. Kazadi Nduba, his presence, be it at the General Assembly or at the 30th Anniversary Celebrations, will remain etched in our minds as an informative, calm, wise and pioneering academic voice and extremely supportive mentor. May his soul rest in eternal peace.

Dr. Godwin R. MURUNGA
25th APRIL 2020

Farewell, Thandika! By Mahmood Mamdani!

26. April 2020 - 19:44

Prof Mahmood Mamdani pens a farewell tribute reminding us that Prof Thandika Mkandawire was "both a complete intellectual and a complete human being".

CODESRIA Bulletin, Nos 1 & 2, 2019

20. April 2020 - 13:53

In this issue
Executive Secretary's Note, Godwin Murunga ------------------1

Debates and Think Pieces

1. Possibilities of Afrikology: A Response to Lansana Keita's Review of Dani Nabudere's Afrikology: A Quest for African Holism, Sanya Osha ------------5

2. Dani Nabudere's Afrikology: An Interview with Sanya Osha, Itibari M. Zulu ---------------------12

3. An African Feminist Decolonial Disability Studies, Kharnita Mohamed ------------------------18

4. Narratives of the Liberation Struggle in Guinea-Bissau: Women's Trajectories and Emancipatory Pathways, Patrícia Godinho Gomes -------- 20

5. L'épidémie à virus Ebola : quels enseignements pour l'Afrique ? Dialo Diop-------------------------24

6. The Ebola Virus Epidemic – What Are the Lessons Africa Can Learn? Dialo Diop-------------------------30


7. Homage to Mwalimu Samir Amin: Africa's Preeminent Radical Economist, Salimah Valiani-------------------37

8. CODESRIA Executive Committee Members, 2018–2021 ----------------------------40