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INCLUDE is the knowledge platform on inclusive development policies.
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Our Monthly Reading List: October 2022

7. November 2022 - 14:40

This year marks not only the 30th anniversary of the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, but also the 10th anniversary of the INCLUDE Knowledge Platform on inclusive development in Africa.

With the 2022 COP27 conference kicking off today in Egypt, this monthly reading list will focus on our perspective on climate change and its impact on inclusive development in Africa, presenting a selection of our publications on the topic.

Ensuring a just and equitable transition towards a sustainable future is a key position that INCLUDE stands for in the debate on climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Recognising the specific needs and circumstances of developing countries, and their historically differential responsibilities with regard to climate change are one aspect of this position. Another relevant aspect is to ensure that the needs of youth and future generations are addressed by amplifying their voices, a position that aligns with the objectives of COP27’s Presidency for the Youth & Future Generations Day on 11th November.

Climate action requires an evidence-based and solution-oriented policy approach in order to make our economies future-fit. “Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities”, to say it in the words articulated in the Paris Agreement, is the focus area of the following INCLUDE’s knowledge products:

  • Green Jobs and the future of work is a partnership project of INCLUDE and Palladium to strengthen the evidence base around youth employment and the future of work in Africa. The publications offer robust and innovative ideas for creating or improving decent work prospects for youth, especially for young women.
  • Building forward more inclusively was the title of last year’s INCLUDE online conference on how to address structural constraints while promoting fundamental, more permanent and inclusive socio-economic transformation post-Covid 19. Our publications, centred around themes like decent jobs, equitable development, climate adaptation and green agriculture, emphasise not to go back to ‘the way things were’ but to build forward more inclusively.
  • Employment at the Crossroads of Crises is an INCLUDE evidence synthesis that reports on the impact of crises on youth employment in Africa, taking into account different types of crises, their structural context and offering recommendations on how policies should be tailored to the specific needs of groups whose employment is most affected.

Het bericht Our Monthly Reading List: October 2022 verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Six key insights for green jobs for youth in Africa

1. November 2022 - 14:42

The African green transition has the potential to create a plurality of job opportunities that help tackle the negative consequences of climate change: green jobs. To find out what is needed to facilitate green jobs for young people in Africa, INCLUDE and Palladium engaged in a collaborative research project in the context of the Challenge Fund for Youth Employment.

Although more work is needed to realise the full potential of the green transition, our research project shed some light on the road ahead. We distilled the following six key insights about green jobs.

Green Jobs Green jobs are jobs in green businesses that contribute appreciably to maintaining or restoring environmental quality and avoiding future damage to the Earth’s ecosystems while also generating and supporting the wellbeing of peopleShortcode content

1. Green jobs creation is a process, rather than an outcome

There are many different ‘shades of green’ when it comes to green jobs. Green jobs can be found along a continuum of business models in various sectors, with varying degrees of sustainability. Green jobs and the transition to a green economy is, therefore, a process, rather than an outcome.

2. Knowledge is key

To enable policymakers and practitioners to stimulate green jobs for youth, a strong evidence base is needed. Systematic creating, monitoring and publishing of knowledge is of the essence. Evidence synthesis will play a crucial role as well. 

3. Long-term investment is needed

Finance protocols and evaluation methods need to adopt longer-term investment strategies. Small and medium enterprises play an important role in green job creation, but green businesses tend to have longer expected payback periods and higher perceived risk. Adapting current strategies to the long-term is needed to allow for green business to be scaled. 

4. Provide youth with the skills to match the future of work

Though it is important to recognise and build on youths’ existing skills, a changing job market may require new skills. Investment in both soft skills as well as technical, management, and vocational training is needed to prepare youth for the future of work.

5. We must move from standalone initiatives to multi-stakeholder collaborations

A variety of stakeholders need to work together to implement comprehensive policies to enable the transition to a green economy in Africa. Multi-stakeholder partnerships are needed, which include national and local governments, international donors, the private sector, civil society organisations, and trade unions. Knowledge platforms can play a coordinating role and support the creation of the broader community of practice.

6. Youth in the driver’s seat

Policies and programmes to stimulate youth employment must be informed by youth themselves. Youth must not only be consulted, but must be part of decision-making on policies and programmes.

More about this project You can find out more about green jobs for youth employment in Africa in our insight paper. You can also download our executive summary for a quick overview.

Het bericht Six key insights for green jobs for youth in Africa verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Our Monthly Reading List: September 2022

29. September 2022 - 14:07

Every month we share with our readers a curated reading list on inclusive development. As we gear up for this year’s COP 27 in Egypt, we are zooming in on the Climate and Food Systems nexus. Unlike last year, the agenda of the 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference dedicates a whole day to “adaptation and agriculture”.

According to new research by a team led by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, agriculture is responsible for about one-third of greenhouse gas emissions. While this highlights the importance of integrating food systems into the climate agenda, it’s missing an explicit mention of nutrition, which focuses on sufficient production and access to healthy and affordable food. However, as the food crisis tightens around the world,  the ‘Hunger Hotspots – FAO-WFP early warnings on acute food insecurity’ report calls for urgent humanitarian action to save lives and livelihoods and prevent famine in hotspot countries where acute food insecurity is expected to worsen from October 2022 to January 2023.  It also finds rising conflict, weather extremes, and economic instability aggravated by the impacts of COVID-19 and the ripple effects of the war in Ukraine (which are also the subject of a recent ASCL blog post) are among the key drivers of the negative developments.

Against this backdrop, 15 organisations will bring attention to the transformations needed in the food and agriculture system to effectively tackle the climate crisis at the Food4Climate Pavilion, among other events organised around the COP27. The Netherlands Food Partnership (NFP), for example, published an information page including a general overview of the programme, as well as an opportunity to preregister for the COP27 briefing sessions later this year. Furthermore, NFP is hosting a creative and thought-provoking event for food professionals to celebrate World Food Day 2022, Wednesday 12 October at the Pakhuis de Zwijger in Amsterdam, organised on behalf of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality. It will set out the key priorities and urgent actions needed to address and mitigate the food and climate crises.

On a more practical note, agroecology is heralded as one of the solutions to adapt the agricultural system to the demand of a changing climate. The YALTA Agroecology Production Handbook is designed to share knowledge with young agriprenuers facilitating or training in agroecology farming. It provides information on the 10 elements of agroecology and includes links to detailed information produced by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). On the topic of improving programming for youth agripreneurs in Africa, the INCLUDE knowledge platform together with The Broker and the NFP has recently started an exciting new project. Youth agripreneurship is increasingly put forward as a solution not only to the innovative transformation of the African agriculture and agro-processing sectors, but also to spur the creation of youth employment opportunities. Policy dialogues organised by Utafiti Sera and the Centre for African Bio-Entrepreneurs (CABE) have worked to make research evidence more accessible to policymakers and relevant actors to catalyse policy interventions regarding the generation of youth employment in agriculture. Along the same lines, the EPRC-African Policy Dialogues (APD) under the Inclusive Development (INCLUDE) Platform project discussed how to create productive and decent work for youth and women in Uganda through Agro Industrialisation.

Het bericht Our Monthly Reading List: September 2022 verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Note 2: Ap(p)iculture: Compatibility mode for digitalisation?

20. September 2022 - 11:14

Not all digital transitions are equal. Uganda currently has an internet penetration level (the portion of the population that has is using the Internet) of 26% of the population in January 2021 and the proportion of broadband connections grew to 53% in December 2021. But in 2019, this rate was still 9% in rural areas and 30% in urban areas. The rural-urban divide is more pronounced in the electricity domain with 70% of urban dwellers having access and only 33% of the rural population connected. Some areas are still not covered, and within communities, the access to infrastructure and technology needed to run digital online solutions varies greatly. When infrastructure does exist, in the case of mobile money or other telecom-based digital applications, levels of digital skills and knowledge can vary greatly. These inequalities and differences matter when digital solutions are designed to specifically target marginalized populations. The implications of inequalities spill over from the digital into the real world. We cannot assume that digital is the same for everybody: for someone it may be a pixelated experience, while for others it has a sharp 4K resolution.

Mind the Gap(p)

It is important to bridge the gap between the environment in which the digital solution is developed and the environment in which it is ultimately used. A multi-pronged approach is necessary. The first suggestion for digital solutions in rural contexts is to be able to work without an internet connection. Focusing on data storage and battery usage of apps is the next step. The processor and memory capacity and ultimately battery life of the users’ devices are important factors to consider. This is particularly important when it’s necessary to work with smart (read: power-hungry) devices for a longer time without charging. The technological capacity of the end users’ devices should be considered when designing the application or platform to be used in rural settings. It’s not realistic to expect a resource-intensive app to work on feature phones or older smartphone models, or to have to update the software frequently while lacking a stable internet connection. In this case, it is worthwhile exploring ways to increase access to affordable smartphones through creative business models.


Another gap to bridge is the appropriateness of digital technology. The developers’ priorities and the end user’s needs are not always the same. In the case of a gamified training application, developers might prioritize the visual aspects of an application. An end user, on the other hand,  may prefer an easy calculator programme that can be run on their mobile phone. Developers may like a nice simulation, while end users may prefer a simple decision-making tool. This means that not all elements of digital technology are fit for purpose.

These issues can be addressed by involving end users in the development of technologies (co-creation). Additionally, working with a trained intermediary can help bridge the digital gap. This proxy user eases the process of interaction with and transition into using the digital technology, by translating, hand-holding, explaining, and advising. In this case, it is worth reflecting on the appropriateness of the technology instead of a non-digital one.

Het bericht Note 2: Ap(p)iculture: Compatibility mode for digitalisation? verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english