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Sachbearbeiter/in für die Betreuung regionaler Programme und Projekte (Osnabrück)

epojobs - 5. April 2021 - 22:00

 

terre des hommes Deutschland e.V. ist eine internationale Kinderrechtsorganisation, die seit 1967 erfolgreich gegen Not und Ausbeutung von Kindern und Jugendlichen kämpft. Gemeinsam mit unseren Partnerorganisationen in 39 Ländern realisieren wir rund 400 Projekte in Lateinamerika, Afrika, Asien und Europa.

Für unser Referat Programme und Politik suchen wir zum nächstmöglichen Zeitpunkt auf der Basis einer 50%-Stelle, befristet für zwei Jahre, zur Unterstützung unserer Referent*innen


eine*n Sachbearbeiter*in für die Betreuung regionaler Programme und Projekte


Ihre Aufgaben

  • Zusammenarbeit mit Regionalreferent*innen in der Begleitung von Projektmaßnahmen und Regionalprogrammen
  • Kommunikation und Kontakt zu den lokalen Partnerorganisationen und Regionalbüros
  • Unterstützung beim Finanzcontrolling von Projektmaßnahmen in Regionalprogrammen
  • Mitarbeit an Projektberichten und Concept Notes
  • Verwaltung der Projektdatenbank
  • Unterstützung bei der strategischen Programmplanung


Unsere Erwartungen

  • eine abgeschlossene Hochschul- oder sonstige Ausbildung mit Bezug zur Tätigkeit
  • erste Erfahrungen in der verwaltungstechnischen Begleitung von sozialen Projekten in Deutschland oder der internationalen Zusammenarbeit
  • sicherer Schreibstil
  • ausgeprägtes Zahlenverständnis und Bereitschaft, sich in die Vertragsgestaltung sowie das Finanzwesen von Projekten einzuarbeiten
  • Interesse an Strategiebildungsprozessen
  • versierter Umgang mit Microsoft 365 (Office, Teams)
  • sehr gute Deutsch- und Englischkenntnisse, weitere Sprachen sind von Vorteil (insbesondere Spanisch oder Portugiesisch)
  • interkulturelle Sensibilität (gerne Bewerber*innen mit eigener oder familiärer Migrations- oder Fluchtgeschichte)


Wir bieten

  • eine sinnstiftende Tätigkeit bei einer national sowie international tätigen Organisation, die sich insbesondere für die Rechte und den Schutz von Kindern und Jugendlichen einsetzt
  • Zusammen- und Mitarbeit in Regionalteams mit Begleitung und Unterstützung bei persönlichen Lernprozessen
  • Einblick in die Planung und Umsetzung strategischer Prozesse
  • eine partizipative Organisationskultur mit institutionalisierter Mitbestimmung inklusive der Möglichkeit, gemeinsam mit Projektpartnern, Ehrenamtlichen sowie Kindern und Jugendlichen über die strategische Ausrichtung der Projekt- und Programmarbeit von terre des hommes zu entscheiden
  • ein konkurrenzfähiges NGO-Gehalt (zuzüglich arbeitgeberfinanzierter betrieblicher Altersvorsorge und Weihnachtsgeld)
  • Möglichkeiten zur Weiterbildung
  • Arbeitsort Osnabrück mit der Möglichkeit von mobilem Arbeiten
  • gelegentliche Projektbesuche im In- und Ausland


Wir setzen unsere internationale Kindesschutzpolitik auch in unserem Arbeitsalltag um. Deshalb erwarten wir die Bereitschaft, nach den Kindesschutzrichtlinien von terre des hommes zu arbeiten, und benötigen bei einer Einstellung ein erweitertes polizeiliches Führungszeugnis.

Bitte senden Sie Ihre Unterlagen, möglichst online, unter Angabe Ihrer Gehaltsvorstellung bis zum 18.04.2021 an:


terre des hommes Deutschland e.V.
z.H. Herrn Joshua Hofert, Referatsleiter Programme und Politik
Postfach 41 26, 49031 Osnabrück
E-Mail: j.hofert@tdh.de

Kategorien: Jobs

Referent/in (m/w/d) Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (Hamburg)

epojobs - 5. April 2021 - 22:00

Plan International ist eine religiös und weltanschaulich unabhängige Hilfsorganisation, die sich weltweit für die Chancen und Rechte der Kinder engagiert: effizient, transparent, intelligent. Seit mehr als 80 Jahren arbeiten wir daran, dass Mädchen und Jungen ein Leben frei von Armut, Gewalt und Unrecht führen können. Dabei binden wir Kinder in über 70 Ländern aktiv in die Gestaltung der Zukunft ein. Die nachhaltige Gemeindeentwicklung und Verbesserung der Lebensumstände in unseren Partnerländern ist unser oberstes Ziel. Wir reagieren schnell auf Notlagen und Naturkatastrophen, die das Leben von Kindern bedrohen. Die nachhaltigen Entwicklungsziele der Vereinten Nationen bestärken uns in unserem Engagement für die Gleichberechtigung von Mädchen und Frauen. Unser globales Ziel: 100 Millionen Mädchen sollen lernen, leiten, entscheiden und ihr volles Potenzial entfalten. Plan ist dem Kinderschutz verpflichtete.

Wir suchen für unsere Abteilung Internationale Zusammenarbeit in Hamburg ab sofort


Referent (m/w/d) Entwicklungszusammenarbeit


- befristet auf zwei Jahre / Vollzeit (40 Wochenstunden) -


Ihre Aufgaben:

  • Management des Projektportfolios der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit
  • Mittelakquise bei bilateralen und multilateralen Gebern (BMZ, EU, AA, UN-Organisationen, BMU u.a.)
  • Auswahl, Konzipierung, inhaltliche und administrative Begleitung und Evaluierung sowie Qualitätssicherung von Projekten in Abstimmung mit den jeweiligen Plan-Länderbüros und Projektpartnern gemäß internationaler Standards und Geberrichtlinien
  • Auf- und Ausbau von guten Arbeitsbeziehungen mit den Gebern und Plan-Länderbüros
  • Mitwirkung bei der Entwicklung von Programm- und Sektorenstrategien sowie Stärkung der Kapazitäten in den Programmländern u.a. im Rahmen projektspezifischer Unterstützung, Start-up Workshops, Trainings, etc.
  • Bereitstellung regionaler und fachlicher Expertise für andere Abteilungen innerhalb von Plan Deutschland


Ihr Profil:

  • Erfolgreich abgeschlossenes Hochschulstudium in einem entwicklungsrelevanten Fach
  • Mindestens drei bis fünf Jahre praktische Berufserfahrung in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit im In- und Ausland und davon mindestens zwei Jahre im Ausland (gerne mit Schwerpunkt im Asien-Pazifik Raum)
  • Erfahrung im Bereich der Antragstellung und richtliniengemäßen Umsetzung öffentlicher Mittel sowie des Projektmanagements mit nationalen und internationalen Gebern
  • Thematische Erfahrung in einem für Plan relevanten Themenbereich der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (z.B. sexuelle und reproduktive Gesundheit und Rechte, Kinderschutz, Gender, Jugendbeschäftigung, Jugendpartizipation)
  • Sehr gute Deutsch-, Englischkenntnisse in Wort und Schrift
  • Weitere Sprachkenntnisse von Vorteil
  • Sehr gute MS Office-Kenntnisse
  • Teamfähig, flexibel, lösungsorientiert und kommunikationsstark
  • Tropentauglichkeit und Bereitschaft zu kurzfristigen und längeren Dienstreisen


Wir bieten Ihnen

  • Einen ergonomischen und modern ausgestatteten Arbeitsplatz
  • Flexible Arbeitszeiten und mobiles Arbeiten nach Absprache
  • Ein engagiertes Arbeitsumfeld
  • Obst und Getränke zur freien Verfügung
  • Zuschuss zum HVV-ProfiTicket, der hauseigenen Kantine/Cafeteria und zur betrieblichen Altersvorsorge
  • Ein gutes Betriebsklima


Wenn Sie Interesse an dieser anspruchsvollen Aufgabe haben, bewerben Sie sich bitte bis zum 18. April 2021 auf Deutsch unter Angabe Ihrer Gehaltsvorstellung und des frühestmöglichen Eintrittstermins online.

Kategorien: Jobs

Kartograf für Erneuerbare Energien (m/w/d) (Kampala)

epojobs - 5. April 2021 - 22:00

Kartograf für Erneuerbare Energien (m/w/d)

JOB-ID: P0090V048J01

Bewerber mit Berufserfg. - Befristet

Tätigkeitsbereich

Das Ministerium für Energie und Bergbau benötigt Ihre Expertise für eine Intensivierung des Einsatzes von geographischen Informationssystemen (GIS). Die Einheit für GIS im Ministerium plant, den Einsatz geografischer Informationssysteme für den Zugang zu nachhaltiger Energie zu verstärken. Dazu sollen insbesondere das Datenmanagement weiterentwickelt und die Zusammenarbeit innerhalb des Ministeriums und mit Partnerbehörden intensiviert werden. Außerdem soll ein Konzept für die Integration und den Austausch von Umweltdaten zwischen relevanten Partnern erarbeitet und umgesetzt werden.

Ihre Aufgaben

  • Erarbeitung und Umsetzung von Konzepten zum Einsatz von GIS in Projekten zum Zugang zu nachhaltiger Energie
  • Erarbeitung eines Konzeptes für ein innovatives Datenmanagement zur Unterstützung einer nationalen Elektrifizierungsstrategie
  • Unterstützung der Statistikabteilung bei der Entwicklung von Standards für Monitoring, Evaluierung und Berichterstattung und bei der Integration unterschiedlicher Datensets (von Distriktverwaltungen, Sektorakteuren)
  • Erarbeitung eines Konzepts für die Integration von Daten in andere Datenbanken (z.B. in die Sustainable Energy for All-Datenbank) und Koordination mit dem ugandischen Statistikbüro
  • Erarbeitung und Umsetzung von Bildungsangeboten für Mitarbeiter/innen des Ministeriums und Partnerbehörden

Ihr Profil

  • Hochschulabschluss in Kartografie, Geowissenschaften oder einer anderen beruflichen Qualifikation, die zur Ausübung der Tätigkeit befähigt
  • Langjährige Berufserfahrung im Themenfeld
  • Erfahrung in der Anwendung von GIS für den Umweltschutz und Erneuerbare Energien
  • Idealerweise Regionalerfahrung
  • Sehr gutes Englisch

Zusatzinformationen

  • Abwechslungsreiche Tätigkeit mit Eigenverantwortung in einem internationalen Umfeld
  • Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Organisationen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit
  • Professionelle Vorbereitung auf den Auslandseinsatz
  • Vermittlung zu lokalem Arbeitgeber als Integrierte Fachkraft für zunächst zwei Jahre - eine Verlängerung ist möglich
  • Attraktive monatliche Zuschüsse zum Ortsgehalt und Sozialleistungen

Hinweis: das Stellenangebot ist aktuell, es gibt keine Bewerbungsfrist.

Landesspezifische Hinweise erhalten Sie unter anderem vom Auswärtigen Amt https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/de/ReiseUndSicherheit und über das Länderinformationsportal www.liportal.de


Anmeldung: https://jobs.cimonline.de/index.php?ac=application&id=54618

Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier: https://jobs.cimonline.de/?ac=jobad&id=54618&view=external

Kategorien: Jobs

Agrarbiologe für Pflanzenschutzsicherheit (m/w/d) (Tashkent)

epojobs - 5. April 2021 - 22:00

Agrarbiologe für Pflanzenschutzsicherheit (m/w/d)

JOB-ID: P0090V051J01

Bewerber mit Berufserfg. - Befristet

Tätigkeitsbereich

Die staatliche Quarantäneinspektion benötigt Ihre Expertise für den Aufbau einer effizienten Pflanzenquarantäneinspektion. Die Quarantäneinspektion ist eine staatliche Verwaltungsorganisation und verantwortlich für die Entwicklung, Umsetzung und Koordinierung von Maßnahmen zur Gewährleistung der Pflanzenschutzsicherheit der Republik Usbekistan. Zu den Aufgaben gehören: Umsetzung einer einheitlichen staatlichen Politik, Durchsetzung der Rechtsvorschriften zur Quarantäne von Anlagen, Koordination des Zusammenwirkens von staatlicher Verwaltung und Wirtschaft, Schutz des Territoriums der Republik vor dem Eindringen von gefährlichen Schädlingen, Pflanzenkrankheiten und Wildkräutern aus dem Ausland sowie dem Ausbau der internationalen Zusammenarbeit.

Ihre Aufgaben

  • Analyse der Gesetzgebung und der aktuellen Arbeitsmethoden der staatlichen Quarantäneinspektion
  • Austausch der Erkenntnisse über die Einhaltung internationaler Standards mit dem Management und den Fachleuten in der Feldüberwachung
  • Ausarbeitung von Verbesserungsvorschlägen und Unterstützung der staatlichen Pflanzenquarantäneinspektion bei der Entwicklung und Umsetzung eines umfassenden Aktionsplans, um die Einhaltung der Standards zu erreichen
  • Unterstützung der Verbesserung des bestehenden Risikomanagements für die staatliche Pflanzenquarantäneinspektionen durch die Entwicklung von Risikoprofilen
  • Sensibilisierung der Außendienstmitarbeiter/innen der staatlichen Pflanzenquarantäneinspektion bei der Bewertung und Steuerung der Risiken im Frachtverkehr
  • Bereitstellung technischer, organisatorischer und prozessorientierter Beratung für eine bessere Kommunikation, Koordination und Zusammenarbeit zwischen verschiedenen Grenzkontrollbehörden sowie zwischen den zentralen und lokalen Einheiten der staatlichen Quarantäneinspektion

Ihr Profil

  • Hochschulabschluss in Agrabiologie, Bioökonomie oder einer anderen beruflichen Qualifikation, die zur Ausübung der Tätigkeit befähigt
  • Langjährige Arbeitserfahrung in Arbeitsmethoden von staatlichen Pflanzenquarantäneinspektionen nach internationalen Standards
  • Erfahrung in der Zusammenarbeit mit verschiednen staatlichen Behörden und der Wirtschaft
  • Idealerweise Regionalerfahrung
  • Sehr gutes Englisch und Russisch

Zusatzinformationen

  • Abwechslungsreiche Tätigkeit mit Eigenverantwortung in einem internationalen Umfeld
  • Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Organisationen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit
  • Professionelle Vorbereitung auf den Auslandseinsatz
  • Vermittlung zu lokalem Arbeitgeber als Integrierte Fachkraft für zunächst 15 Monate - eine Verlängerung ist möglich
  • Attraktive monatliche Zuschüsse zum Ortsgehalt und Sozialleistungen

Hinweis: das Stellenangebot ist aktuell, es gibt keine Bewerbungsfrist.

Landesspezifische Hinweise erhalten Sie unter anderem vom Auswärtigen Amt https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/de/ReiseUndSicherheit und über das Länderinformationsportal www.liportal.de


Anmeldung: https://jobs.cimonline.de/index.php?ac=application&id=54616

Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier: https://jobs.cimonline.de/?ac=jobad&id=54616&view=external

Kategorien: Jobs

Growing Organic Together

SNRD Africa - 5. April 2021 - 20:11
Despite Corona, farmers of Cameroon, Germany and Zambia exchange — online
Kategorien: english

Employment creation potential, labor skills requirements, and skill gaps for young people: A Senegal case study

Brookings - 5. April 2021 - 17:04

By Ahmadou Aly Mbaye, Fatou Gueye, Assane Beye, Abdou Khadir Dia, Massaer Mbaye

Abstract

In this paper, we analyze specific “industries without smokestacks” and their potential contribution to economic growth and job creation in Senegal.

Our main finding is that this potential is huge and can be further leveraged by adopting certain policies, both in terms of sectoral reforms and encouraging investments to improve the business environment. Moreover, in doing so, resulting IWOSS growth might further increase the growth trajectory of Senegal in the near future. It would also dramatically increase the number of high-quality jobs that also correspond to a higher level of skills. Our findings, based on assumptions regarding minor reforms to be undertaken by the government in some critical areas of private sector development policy, project that, by 2035, a total of 10,985,000 new jobs will be created in the Senegalese economy, The number of IWOSS jobs is estimated to be as high as 7,435,000, which is roughly two-thirds of total new jobs. Moreover, these IWOSS jobs, which are higher-productivity, are likely to be better quality jobs than the others.

To fully realize the potential of IWOSS to facilitate structural transformation, government will have to address some key constraints. Such policies should aim to remove the many hurdles that exist in Senegal’s regulatory framework and deter private enterprise development, including: a) highly rigid labor regulations; b) a cumbersome and costly tax system; c) a still-inhibiting importing system; d) a weak judicial system and poor contract enforcement environment; and e) infrastructural deficiencies in areas like electricity, transportation, and telecommunications, etc. Our study also underscores significant skills gaps—in terms of hard, digital, and soft skills, that will need to be addressed in order to encourage such transformation.

Download the full working paper

 

      
Kategorien: english

How A New International Pandemic Treaty Can Prevent the Next Big One

UN Dispatch - 5. April 2021 - 17:03

On March 30th, leaders from 23 countries plus the heads of the World Health Organization and the European Union called for a new international treaty to confront the next pandemic.

In a joint statement that was published in news outlets around the world, major European powers were joined by presidents and prime ministers in the Africa, Latin America, and Asia to support the idea of a new treaty on pandemic preparedness and response.

On the line with me to discuss this potential new treaty is Kate Dodson, Vice President for Global Health at the United Nations Foundation. We kick off discussing the contents of this joint op-ed and what it suggests might be included in a pandemic treaty?  We also discuss how the ideas contained in the op-ed may eventually be included in some sort of global agreement or formal international treaty.

If you have 20 minutes and want to learn why the idea of an international pandemic treaty is gaining traction and how it might help the world confront the next pandemic, have a listen

 

Get the podcast to listen later Apple Podcasts  | Google Podcasts |  Spotify  |  Stitcher  | Radio Public

The post How A New International Pandemic Treaty Can Prevent the Next Big One appeared first on UN Dispatch.

Kategorien: english

Knowledge diplomacy and the future(s) of global cooperation

GDI Briefing - 5. April 2021 - 10:05

Scientific and expert knowledge is central to any sustainable future. Because consensual knowledge establishes the parameters within which decisions can be made despite complexity and uncertainty, it assumes a facilitating function. This can be for example well observed on how national strategies to achieve sustainability are developed, legitimized, implemented, and assessed. Policy-makers consult scientific experts to better understand problem issues and to come up with evidence-based solutions that can be jointly accepted by any political ideology and by the constituents. At the same time, the reliance of policy-making to scientific knowledge increases the demand or need to be critical of the emerging scientific authority or technocracy. In the context of transformation to sustainability (T2S) where the outcomes of bargaining and persuasion games represent new lock-ins, the ability or the inability to influence the definition of these lock-ins through equitable access to knowledge is integral to the legitimacy of T2S.
Knowledge diplomacy (and how it leads up to consensual knowledge) is an important driver of creating visions and narratives on sustainable futures. At the same time, the transformation process towards sustainability creates new norms for example in governance and social relations that have implications to how knowledge diplomacy is conducted. Expanding access to education as a strategy to reduce income inequality is more likely to empower a broader citizen participation in consensual knowledge making and thus in policy-making. Building on the author’s work on Sustainable Development Pathways, this article introduces three possible futures scenarios of how knowledge diplomacy can unfold depending on how access to scientific and expert knowledge translates into convening power: convergent cosmopolitan society (melting pot 1), convergent liberal world (melting pot 2), and divergent glocality (salad bowl).

Kategorien: english

Knowledge diplomacy and the future(s) of global cooperation

DIE - 5. April 2021 - 10:05

Scientific and expert knowledge is central to any sustainable future. Because consensual knowledge establishes the parameters within which decisions can be made despite complexity and uncertainty, it assumes a facilitating function. This can be for example well observed on how national strategies to achieve sustainability are developed, legitimized, implemented, and assessed. Policy-makers consult scientific experts to better understand problem issues and to come up with evidence-based solutions that can be jointly accepted by any political ideology and by the constituents. At the same time, the reliance of policy-making to scientific knowledge increases the demand or need to be critical of the emerging scientific authority or technocracy. In the context of transformation to sustainability (T2S) where the outcomes of bargaining and persuasion games represent new lock-ins, the ability or the inability to influence the definition of these lock-ins through equitable access to knowledge is integral to the legitimacy of T2S.
Knowledge diplomacy (and how it leads up to consensual knowledge) is an important driver of creating visions and narratives on sustainable futures. At the same time, the transformation process towards sustainability creates new norms for example in governance and social relations that have implications to how knowledge diplomacy is conducted. Expanding access to education as a strategy to reduce income inequality is more likely to empower a broader citizen participation in consensual knowledge making and thus in policy-making. Building on the author’s work on Sustainable Development Pathways, this article introduces three possible futures scenarios of how knowledge diplomacy can unfold depending on how access to scientific and expert knowledge translates into convening power: convergent cosmopolitan society (melting pot 1), convergent liberal world (melting pot 2), and divergent glocality (salad bowl).

Kategorien: Ticker

Keynote Speech for the APFSD 2021 Side Event: Civil Society at the Frontlines

Reality of Aid - 5. April 2021 - 6:15

Delivered by Jahangir Hasan Masum | Chairperson of the Reality of Aid – Asia Pacific and Executive Director of the Coastal Development Partnership (CDP) in Bangladesh   Dear colleagues, friends and participants, First of all, I would like to thank the Reality of Aid – Asia Pacific (RoA-AP), CSO Partnership for Development Effectiveness in Asia (CPDE- Asia), and the International Indigenous Peoples Movement for Self-Determination and Liberation (IPMSDL) for organizing this important event to discuss […]

The post Keynote Speech for the APFSD 2021 Side Event: Civil Society at the Frontlines appeared first on Reality of Aid.

Kategorien: english

"Christliche Umweltethik. Grundlagen und zentrale Herausforderungen"

#HOCHN - 5. April 2021 - 0:00

Am 15. April 2021  wird das Buch "Christliche Umweltethik. Grundlagen und zentrale Herausforderungen", geschrieben von Markus Vogt, online vorgestellt. 

WAS Buchvorstellung WER Alle Interesssierten WANN 15.04.2021, 19.00-20.30 Uhr

Ethik und Theologie haben sich zunehmend als wichtige Stimmen im Umweltdiskurs etabliert. Für die notwendige „Große Transformation“ fehlt es nicht primär an ökologischem Wissen und technischen Möglichkeiten, sondern an einem tieferliegenden Wandel der kulturellen Grundeinstellungen. Vor diesem Hintergrund entfaltet das Buch eine systematische umweltethische Reflexion.

Weitere Informationen zu der Veranstaltung sind hier (Link) hinterlegt.

Foto: wal_172619/pixabay

Kategorien: Ticker

What’s the latest economic research on Africa?

INCLUDE Platform - 4. April 2021 - 10:43
A Round-up of Nearly One Hundred Studies from CSAE 2021

From 15-26 March, for the second time, the annual conference by the Centre for the Study of African Economies at Oxford University was held virtually. The conference received nearly 100 papers on topics from political economy, to service provision in health and education, to agriculture, labour, trade, and environment. This post by David Evans summares the findings of these papers, noting the research method used next to each study (explanation in the box below). The countries most heavily represented are Kenya (8 papers), Uganda (7), Ghana (5), and Tanzania (5), Ethiopia (4), Nigeria (4), Mozambique (3), Rwanda (3), and South Africa (3). Nine papers drew on data from multiple African countries, and there are single studies from a wide range of other countries, including the Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Togo.

Guide to methodological hashtags

#DID = Difference-in-differences

#ES = Event study

#FE = Fixed effects

#IV = Instrumental variables

#LIF = Lab in the field

#PSM = Propensity score matching

#RCT = Randomized controlled trial

#RD = Regression discontinuity

#SC = Synthetic control

Agriculture
  • How do conflict and land access affect households’ choice of herd size and type of livestock? In Nigeria, exposure to conflict reduced herd size and encouraged diversifying across (and focusing on smaller) species. Access to land counteracts most of these effects: it increases herd size and encourages specialization, but still with smaller livestock. (Fadare, Zanello, and Srinivasan) #DID
  • How does conflict affect agricultural productivity? What about conflict and land cultivation? In the Central African Republic, the presence of conflict in the previous year reduces farmers’ land preparation (as measured by fewer fires to clear the land) and their agricultural production. “These decreases are suggestive of the abandoning of farmlands due to conflict.” (Blankespoor, Touray, and Katayama) #DID
  • Civil conflict in Mali “had a negative impact on agriculture production and livestock holdings.” Food assistance countered the negative effect of conflict on livestock holdings, but not on farm production. (Masset et al.) #DID
  • Subsidizing watchmen to prevent theft on farms in Kenya improved output per acre by 15 percent without displacing crime to nearby villages. Farmers were more likely to try new crops or plant more, but the benefit experienced by individual farmers does not outweigh the cost of hiring a watchman. (Dyer) #RCT
  • Electrifying villages in Ethiopia made them more likely to benefit from an irrigation system, which then went on to improve their agricultural labor productivity. (Dorinet) #IV
  • How do public health interventions affect agricultural productivity? In Burkina Faso, eliminating schistosomiasis (a water-based disease endemic in low- and middle-income countries) could increase crop yields by 7 percent on average and by 32 percent in areas with high rates of infection. The construction of dams and reservoirs, while they directly boost agricultural yields, can also have negative indirect effects by facilitating the spread of the disease. (Rinaldo) #IV
  • Comparing land on two sides of rivers in Mozambique suggests that land better connected to roads is more likely to be cultivated but not necessarily managed differently. (von Carnap et al.)
  • In Uganda, a mobile phone-based marketplace for agricultural commodities increased trade flows and reduced price divergence, but only for the largest farmers who could reach the scale required to find buyers on the platform. (Bergquist and McIntosh) #RCT
  • Groundnut farmers in Senegal were offered a new contract that guaranteed a price premium and provides training and credit for the purchase of a new technology to improve quality. (The technology reduced fungi on the groundnut plants.) The farmers were “significantly more likely to purchase and use the technology” and “to comply with international quality standards” (for farmers in areas where the quality of groundnuts was traditionally low). (Deutschmann, Bernard, and Yameogo) #RCT
  • Village-level data on land use and crop suitability in Uganda suggest that agricultural productivity “could be increased by one third just by reallocating crops, even among “narrowly defined areas serving the same urban markets.” (Morando)
  • Farmers who received free weekly updates on their mobile phones about the cashew market (news, prices, and marketing advice based on trends) engaged in more sales, whereas other farmers “tended to concentrate their sale in one large transaction.” Average price for sale was lower in the group receiving updates, but total value of all sales was significantly higher. (Pereira et al.) #RCT
Firms
  • Firms in Zimbabwe face financial access constraints (i.e. higher demand for funds than what’s available), especially “productive, young, and small firms.” A smaller number of financially constrained firms invests, leading to lost productivity, but average employment growth seems to be unaffected by constraints. (Kamutando)
  • A two-decade large-scale road and electricity network expansion in Ethiopia increased welfare by at least 11% compared to no investment. “Access to an all-weather road…increases services employment, at the expense of manufacturing.” But access to a road together with access to electricity increases manufacturing. (Moneke) #IV
  • A field experiment in Ethiopia subsidized formal employee search (“online and offline job boards and newspaper advertisements”) with no impact on vacancy creation and hires. After the subsidy ran out, firms went back to informal network-based hiring, although some firms observed “a lasting and significant increase in their demand for white collar workers.” (Hensel, Tekleselassie, and Witte) #RCT
  • Offering a digital phonebook to small firms in Tanzania increased “relational contracting” (receiving and giving benefits beyond what’s usual in anonymous transactions) with their suppliers and decreased it with their customers, but there’s no evidence that it actually increased the number of customers or suppliers. (Rudder) #RCT
  • Installing monitoring devices that track real-time vehicle driving behavior and daily productivity of commuter minibuses in Kenya improved efficiency and reduced risky driving. Owners with access to the monitoring device reduced daily revenue targets for drivers. In turn, drivers worked longer hours “but engaged in substantially less damaging driving such as off-road driving, earning about the same amount of revenue as before” while saving the owner maintenance costs. After six months, owners were expanding their minibus businesses. (Kelley, Lane, and Schönholzer) #RCT
  • Does financial misconduct impair market efficiency? In Ghana, two anti-misconduct information campaigns for mobile money vendors and consumers were designed to improve price transparency (“what to ask while at banking points”) or to inform users how to monitor and report (“how to report transactional glitches or misconduct”). The programs decreased incidence of vendor misconduct, increased uptake of transactional services, and improved savings behavior. “While overall poverty levels did not decrease, it significantly decreased for female customers” by eliminating “existing gender gaps in uptake and savings behavior.” (Annan and Sanoh) #RCT
  • Following the devastation of Cyclone Idai in Mozambique in 2019, cash grants to micro businesses “had a positive effect on firm income, profit, savings and roof repair.” The grant had a stronger impact in locations that experienced more severe damage. (Berkel, Fisker, and Tarp) #RCT
  • In a market with perfect competition, cash transfers will increase demand, which should mean higher prices. New businesses then come in to drive prices down, benefitting transfer recipients. But what happens when new businesses cannot compete? A cash transfer program for refugees in Kenya only allowed the money to be spent at licensed businesses. This resulted to higher profit for the licensed businesses but also inflated prices. (Delius and Sterck) #PSM
  • Access to high-speed internet in Africa increased innovation within firms, particularly in firms with “advanced digital skills.” It also boosted entrepreneurship in the service sector. (Houngbonon, Mensah, and Traore) #DID #IV
Households, inequality and poverty
  • When Malawi faced multiple droughts and floods during 2014-2016, households exposed to weather shocks in sequential years reduced both food and non-food consumption, as compared to households exposed to just one weather shock, who were able to maintain their food-consumption levels. Household poverty level was not a significant predictor of aid receipt during weather shocks, suggesting a need for better targeting. (Kilic) #IV
  • Households in Côte d’Ivoire where husbands attended a training for rubber farming without their wives saw a 26 percent drop in total harvest and an 18 percent drop in yield. (This isn’t unusual since newly planted rubber plants can take six years before they mature for harvest.) But households where husbands and wives both attended the training planted 20 percent more rubber seedlings and kept their yield constant using “older trees and other crops.” (Donald, Goldstein, and Rouanet) #RCT
  • Entrepreneurs in Benin who formalize their microbusinesses–both women and men–have more control over household revenue and contribute less to household expenses and their partners’ personal expenses. Women entrepreneurs who formalize their businesses are much more willing to pay to hide a windfall from their spouse. (Pouliquen) #RCT
  • Pre-pandemic face-to-face surveys followed by later phone surveys in Nigeria reveal that “lockdown measures increased households’ experience of food insecurity by 13 percentage points and reduced the probability of participation in non-farm business activities by 11 percentage points.” (Amare et al.) #DID
  • Weekly financial diaries in Kenya reveal that the COVID-19 pandemic reduced work income by almost a third and reduced income from gifts and remittances by more than a third. Households postponed loan repayments, gave out fewer gifts and remittances, and lent less money to others. (Janssens et al.)
  • Households in rural Uganda lost 60 percent of their non-farm income as a result of lost business and labor income during the pandemic lockdown. Coping mechanisms included cutting 40 percent of food expenditure, using up to half of savings, borrowing more, and using the additional available labor in farming and livestock. (Mahmud and Riley)
  • Who needs an impact evaluation? 20,000 forecasts of the impacts of experiments in Kenya show that “average predicted effects track experimental results well.” People similar to those receiving the intervention predict results well for interventions likely to be familiar to them, but academics predict better on average. The average forecast of each group is more accurate than 75 percent of the individual forecasts, evocative of the “wisdom of crowds” idea. Among academics, confidence, citations, and experience doing research in East Africa do not predict accuracy of forecasts. (Otis)
  • Nigerian women who received cash transfers are more likely to start a business of their own (6 percentage points). One year after the transfers stopped, beneficiary women and their neighbors (spill-over effects!) are more likely to have a business than in villages without the cash transfer program. (Friedman et al.) #RCT
  • Can hosting refugees create market opportunities? In Uganda, home to the largest refugee population in Africa, a decrease of one kilometer in distance from refugee households increases “hosts’ wage income by about 25 percent.” But the effects fade for distances over five kilometers. (d’Errico et al.) #IV
Labour
  • A field experiment in Ethiopia invited unemployed youth to self-affirmation and goal-setting workshops. The workshops improved the likelihood of employment, days worked, and earnings for men (especially those men who believed they had little control over their lives), but did not shift outcomes for women. Getting women into the labor force “requires addressing access to childcare” and expectations around household obligations. (Mejía-Mantilla and Walsh) #RCT
  • Can you learn how to use LinkedIn more effectively? A randomized evaluation in South Africa trained workseekers to join and use LinkedIn: it improved their employment rate by 7 percentage points. Effects persisted a year later. (Wheeler et al.) #RCT
  • Early childbearing was associated with “a large, negative, and significant … effect on literacy and educational attainment,” and with reduced labor market prospects (via literacy), according to data from Cameroon, Uganda, Ghana, and Gabon. (Age at menarche serves as an instrumental variable.) (Burger et al.) #IV
  • “South Africa currently has the highest rate of youth unemployment … in the world.” Individuals who are unemployed once are highly likely to be unemployed again, such that “early policies reducing short-run unemployment would have long term effects.” (Eigbiremolen)
  • New university graduates in Mozambique tend to have over-optimistic expectations about how much they’ll earn. Providing information on earnings by previous graduates lowered the salary expectation of new graduates, initially by 7 percent and then by 13 percent in the long run. The only thing that lowered expectations more was the receipt of an actual salary offer. (Jones) #RCT
  • After South Africa introduced a minimum wage for agricultural workers in 2003, employers in the agricultural sector were more likely to fire workers during a bad year. (Sharp) #DID
  • The opening of industrial mines in Mali decreased children’s working hours by 8.6 hours per week, with bigger effects for girls. The effects came “through higher household income and increased mothers’ presence at home.” But the reduced working hours for children did not translate to improvements in children’s educational outcomes. (Son) #DID
  • A cash transfer in Kenya improved the diets of both the households receiving the transfer and non-recipient households in the same communities, potentially through “sharing the … transfers among social network members.” Recipients also increased their savings and access to credit. (Ongudi and Thiam) #DID
Macro productivity
  • “Using data on 84 developing countries over the period 1980-2013, we find a positive long-run association between aid and taxes… Higher bureaucratic costs of aid (as measured by high donor fragmentation) create instability in aid,” which reduces local tax collection. (Tagem)
  • In Tanzania, insecure land property rights are “associated with resource misallocation and market incompleteness.” A model predicts gains for both agricultural and non-agricultural output from land reform. (Manysheva)
  • During the COVID-19 pandemic, countries that were “eligible for official debt relief experience a larger decline in borrowing costs compared to similar, ineligible countries.” The drop in borrowing costs is bigger for “countries that receive” more debt relief. (Lang, Mihalyi, and Presbitero)
  • Is Africa de-industrializing? No. After conditioning on income, population, and fixed differences across countries, “manufacturing output shares show positive and statistically significant trends over time… Africa is not deindustrializing, although there has not been any significant industrial development since the 1970s.” (But Southern Africa is the exception!) (Mensah)
  • Across 48 African countries over 17 years, “an increase in corruption by one standard deviation is associated with a decrease in the proportion of capital expenditure from 29% to 16%… it seems more beneficial for corrupted bureaucrats to manipulate public spending in favor of current rather than capital expenditures.” (Sedgo and Omgba)
  • International financial institutions have encouraged a shift in taxation towards domestic sales taxes, especially the value added tax. However, these taxes are regressive, since poorer households spend more on consumption. Indeed, simulations in Togo suggest that such a shift increases poverty! (Adandohoin)
  • In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a randomly assigned tax reduction at different levels shows that lowering tax rates actually increased revenues. Better tax collectors allow a higher optimal tax rate. (Bergeron, Tourek, and Weigel)
  • A community-driven development program in Somalia that required community contributions (i.e., via matching grants) “had positive effects on the capacity of communities to undertake development projects, to raise informal taxes, and to produce higher quality public goods.” (van den Boogaard and Santoro) #RCT
Political economy
  • Do armed groups “use sexual violence as a strategy to extort economic resources” from civilians? Data from sexual violence against civilians by armed groups in “all African countries” from 1997 to 2018 reveal that “one standard deviation increase in the value of gold mined in artisanal mining areas – a labor intensive and easy to conceal resource – increases sexual violence by two-third of the sample mean.” (Fourati, Girard, and Laurent-Lucchetti)
  • How can climate change drive conflict? “Ethnographic and conflict data in Africa from 1989 to 2018” suggest that “droughts in pastoral areas lead to conflict in neighboring agricultural areas.” As arid regions of Africa expand, “agro-pastoral conflict is caused by the displacement of pastoral groups due to low precipitation in their homelands.” (McGuirk and Nunn)
  • During the Rwandan genocide, villages that experienced more male-targeted violence may have also experienced a power vacuum that empowered women: “women in high-violence villages are healthier, better educated, wealthier, hold more decision-making power, are less likely to accept and experience domestic violence, work in better jobs, and enjoy more sexual and financial autonomy.” (Rogall and Zárate-Barrera) #IV
  • Do cash transfers sway elections? In Kenya, cash transfers in advance of an election neither affected turnout in the national election nor swayed household members’ opinions of local candidates. “Voters (correctly) do not attribute the programme to their local leader.” (Orkin and Walker) #RCT
  • Political inequality takes multiple forms: “gaps in citizens’ voice (input inequality), in the degree of responsiveness of political systems (throughput inequality), and in the ways political decisions favor different groups of citizens differently (output inequality).” An experiment with consultative meetings in Kampala, Uganda found “clear evidence” of the first type of inequality and moderate evidence of the second, with men and Luganda speakers benefiting, but no evidence of output inequality. (Bosancianu, Garcia-Hernandez, and Humphreys) #RCT
  • A school reform in Liberia that outsourced public school management to private operators increased school attendance and test scores. But it also lost votes for the responsible party’s presidential candidate. Why? Potentially because the reform led to a highly-publicized dismissal of teachers by a private operator which reduced “teachers’ support for the incumbent government – especially among unionized teachers.” (Sandholtz) #RCT
Service provision in health and education
  • Providing monetary incentives to community-based volunteers in Zambia — to be paid out if more women were referred or accompanied to antenatal care visits — did not significantly increase the number of visits overall; it just increased the number of accompanied visits. Institutional deliveries rose. (Chama-Chiliba et al.) #RCT
  • “The malaria control program in Nigeria that involves community health workers resulted in lower malaria prevalence, but had a significantly negative impact on physical growth for children under five.” What?! This was potentially because the malaria program’s increased demand for community health workers reduced poor households’ access to other health services. (Dong) #RCT
  • Training teachers in Ghana to target instruction to the current learning level of the student boosted learning outcomes. Adding training of school managers did not further boost learning, although it did boost measures of management quality. (Beg, Fitzpatrick, and Lucas) #RCT
  • A school feeding program in Rwanda improved student test scores (“with the impact accruing over time”) and narrowed the gender gap in student performance, yielding an estimated “11:1 return on investment.” (Mensah and Nsabimana) #DID
  • How has education quality changed over time? Data from 87 countries between 1950 and 2000 show that “cross-country differences in education quality are strikingly persistent: top performers like Burundi and Vietnam have seen table performance over decades. A few large developing countries…have experienced significant declines in education quality, while almost no country in our sample has seen a significant improvement.” (Le Nestour, Moscoviz, and Sandefur)
  • In Tanzania, setting goals improved students’ time use, study effort, and self-discipline but did not improve test scores, mostly because most students (two-thirds) set unrealistic goals. Adding recognition of students with high performance led to smaller gains than setting goals alone. (Islam et al.) #RCT
  • Based on data from school construction in Egypt in the 1960s and 70s, “the opening of a new university in an individual’s province increases the likelihood of obtaining a university degree … by 11 percent. The impact is driven mainly by women, as social norms limit their mobility to get higher education elsewhere.” (Elsayed and Shirshikova) #DID
  • Using the 1980 education reform in Zimbabwe which increased access to education, the study finds that “schooling has a significant negative effect on HIV status and the propensity to stigmatize people living with HIV and AIDS.” (Njowke and Kijima) #RD
  • What do we learn from 145 recent empirical studies of education in Africa? Structured pedagogy, mother tongue instruction, and school feeding all deliver learning gains. (Evans and Mendez Acosta) #Review
  • Across 350 public primary schools in Tanzania, “approximately 96% of teachers support the idea of teacher performance pay, while 61% favour at least some performance-linked element in a future salary increase.” A small “majority of parents (55%) prefer performance pay over school grants.” (Mbiti and Schipper) (Working paper)
  • In Rwanda, 20 percent of teachers leave their jobs each year. There is high teacher turnover in schools with low learning levels, low pupil-teacher ratios (yes, you read that right), among early-career teachers, and among male teachers. 23 percent of “exiting teachers are not replaced the following year.” Teacher turnover leads to lower learning outcomes. (Zeitlin) (Open source)
  • In Kagera (Tanzania), “if females manage to get post-primary education (which we know is harder), this helps them much more than males to get a skilled or professional job” (excerpt from the presentation). (Kamanzi et al.) #IV
Trade, environment and spatial development
  • How different is China from other investors in Africa? “The main drivers behind location choice are similar for Chinese and non-Chinese investors,” but Chinese investments are more responsive to the size of the market. In particular, “Chinese investors target the large and growing economy of South Africa much more frequently than other investors.” (Benfratello, D’Ambrosio, and Sangrigoli)
  • “An additional dry rainy season” in a given area of Kenya leads to a drop in population growth in that area, with most of the out-migration (about 58 percent) by men. (Gittard) #FE
  • “The competition created by industrial fishing vessels overfishing African seas and depleting fish stocks” increases “the number of asylum seekers to OECD in general and of male asylum seekers to European OECD countries in particular.” (Hu and Libois) #FE
  • Trade liberalization in Ghana may have “led to the trend of de-industrialization that many African economies are experiencing.” (Ayoade-Alabi) #SC
  • Fewer Chinese workers go to parts of Africa with high malaria risk, although this is less true for Chinese workers from parts of China with “historically high malaria risk.” (Cervellati et al.)
  • Droughts in Niger exacerbate the seasonality of food prices, with lower millet prices right after harvest but much higher prices later during the lean season. (Kakpo et al.)
  • An agricultural extension program in Uganda boosted agricultural productivity and actually “reduced deforestation by 13” percent. “Suitably designed programs improving agricultural productivity may also enable conservation.” (Abman et al.) #RD
  • Human settlements in Ghana over the last 40 years have grown, mostly near roads and the coast. Looking to the future, “we predict a sharp increase in the proportion of the country that is densely built-up by the middle and the end of the century… Based on current trends, we do not expect urban growth in Ghana to take the form of urban sprawl.” (Fafchamps and Shilpi)

 

The information in this article was originally published on the Centre for Global Development (CGD) website. Access the original article here, which includes evidence from all countries, including some outside Sub-Saharan Africa. Alternatively, visit the conference website here.

Het bericht What’s the latest economic research on Africa? verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

CODESRIA Bulletin, Nos 1, 2021

CODESRIA - 3. April 2021 - 17:39

In this issue / Dans ce numéro

Editorial

Godwin R. Murunga & Ibrahim O. Ogachi ------------------------------------------------ 1

Éditorial

Godwin R. Murunga & Ibrahim O. Ogachi --------------------------------------------------------- 5

Pandemic and Social Distancing

1. The Racial and Olfactory Origin of Social Distancing, Richard Atimniraye
Nyelade and Dunfu Zhang ----------------------------------------------------------- 7

Remembering Walter Rodney

2. The Continuing Relevance of Walter Rodney, Ian Taylor --------------------------- 15
3. Reclaiming the African Past and Present with Walter Rodney,
David Johnson ------------------------------------------------------- 27

Democracy and Elections in Ghana

4. Gilgamesh Dilemma in Counterbalancing Power in Ghana: Constraints,
Opportunities and Possibilities, Clement Sefa-Nyarko -------------------------------------- 31
5. Ghana's Democracy and the 2020 General Election: Signs of a Fading
Promise? Lloyd G. Adu Amoah ---------------------------------------------- 36

Financing Development and Democracy in Africa

6. The AfDB and its origins of financing development in Africa: Locating money
finance within industrial policy, Richard Itaman -------------------------------------------------- 41
7. Reflections on Aid and Regime Change in Ethiopia: A Response to Cheeseman, Jimi O. Adesina, Andrew M. Fischer &
Nimi Hoffmann ----------------------------------------------------------- 47

Tributes

8. A Personal Tribute to Professor Wamba dia Wambia,
Msia Kibona Clark ------------------------------------------------------------- 53

KEHUA auf Platz 5 im globalen modularen USV-Markt

Presseportal Afrika - 3. April 2021 - 17:36
Kehua Hengsheng Co., Ltd [Newsroom]
Xiamen, China (ots/PRNewswire) - KEHUA TECH (002335.SZ) wurde laut Omdia, einem weltweit führenden Marktforschungsunternehmen für die Technologiebranche, auf Platz 5 der Marktanteile für modulare USVs gesetzt. KEHUA ist ein globales ... Lesen Sie hier weiter...

Original-Content von: Kehua Hengsheng Co., Ltd, übermittelt durch news aktuell

CTA / Chemielaborant / Techniker (m/w/d) (Ludwigsfelde) - SunCoal Industries

greenjobs - 3. April 2021 - 13:04
SunCoal Industries vermarktet eine patentierte Technologie zur Erzeugung von umweltfreundlichen, technischen Kohlenstoffen, biobasierten Chemikalien und Biobrennstoffen sowie zur Entwässerung organischer Schlämme.Hierbei realisiert SunCoal Industries Anlagen-, Entwicklungs-, Engineering- und Consulting-Projekte für Kunden aus der Papier- und Zellstoffindustrie, der Holz- und Forstwirtschaft, der Energiewirtschaft, der chemischen Industrie und der Entsorgungsbranche. [...]
Kategorien: Jobs

Belen aus Ecuador: Tradition und Tatendrang

Unicef - 3. April 2021 - 9:00
Als Kayambi gehört die 16-jährige Belen zu einer indigenen Volksgruppe in Ecuador. Seit vier Jahren engagiert sie sich für ihre Gemeinschaft und lässt alte Rituale wieder aufleben.
Kategorien: Ticker

Forthcoming - Social Policy in the African context

CODESRIA - 2. April 2021 - 21:31

Edited by Jimi O. Adesina

The ‘counter-revolution' in Development Economics in the 1980s fundamentally altered the way the state ‘thinks', which is evident in the state's retrenchment and reconstitution of the state's relationship to its citizens. The combination of deflationary macroeconomic policies and a residual approach to social policy, broadly, and social provisioning, more specifically, fundamentally altered the post-colonial trajectory of public policy in Africa. Despite the neoliberal ascendance that nurtured the more residual direction of social policy, the contention for an alternative vision of social policy remained and advanced with vigour.
The chapters in this volume were initially presented at the inaugural Social Policy in Africa Conference, held in November 2017 in Pretoria, South Africa. The essays document the shifting trajectories of social policy in Africa, the current state of play in the field, and the alternative vision of social policy framed by the idea of Transformative Social Policy. Specific contributions range from the deployment of social policy in framing the nation-building project, endogenous mutual support institutions, land and agrarian reform as a social policy instrument, the gender dynamics of social policy, and the mechanism enabling the spread of cash transfer schemes on the continent.

Jimi Adesina is Professor and the DSI/NRF SARChI Chair in Social Policy at the College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (Unisa) in South Africa. A past President of the South African Sociological Association (2004–2006), Professor Adesina was elected to the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) in 2005. He served on the Board of the UN Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva (2013–2019) and on the Board of RC19 of the International Sociological Association (2014 to 2018). His research interests include Sociology, Social Policy and the Political Economy of Africa's Development. He has published widely in these areas.

For greater vaccine equity, first fix these misconceptions

Brookings - 2. April 2021 - 18:35

By Philip Schellekens

As we start to see the light at the end of the pandemic’s dark tunnel, inequities in the distribution of vaccines across countries are coming under intense scrutiny. Unequal vaccine distribution is not necessarily unfair—after all, some population groups are more vulnerable than others. Yet relative to sensible metrics of need, the current inequality is excessive. Efforts to boost and balance deployment have galvanized under the clarion call for #VaccinEquity, but progress has been slow and marred by bottlenecks.

In addition to the various practical constraints—including financing, logistics, manufacturing, and patent rights—three misconceptions stand in the way: the view that COVID-19 is mainly a “rich-country disease”; a focus on herd immunity that detracts from the pressing goal of protecting the global priority group; and a belief that fixing vaccine hoarding in rich countries will fix vaccine equity on its own.

A global snapshot of vaccine inequity

Competing interests in diplomacy, economics, and global health shape the international distribution of vaccines, but overshadowing them all are universally recognized ethical principles that center on “need” and “priority for the disadvantaged.” Needs encompass a fuzzy spectrum. They include the burden of morbidity (e.g., long COVID), broader health effects (e.g., undermanaged illnesses), and wider socioeconomic effects (e.g., food security and poverty). But as long as this pandemic rages on, needs will first and foremost be defined by the vulnerability to premature death—which not only is devastating but also irreversible and hence hard to compensate for.

Quantifying needs is easier said than done. Trade-offs battle trade-offs. Prioritize those with high risk of death once infected or those most likely to infect or be infected? Prioritize on the basis of expected years of life left? If so, how to compare 60-year-olds from Niger with an average of two years left to live with those in Norway with 23 years left? And should we prioritize places with high R values (the reproduction number)? If so, do we distinguish between situations of poor infection control due to structural factors (e.g., informality) or discretionary ones (e.g., low compliance with mask rules)?

The vaccine equity trackers on the website pandem-ic.com examine the massive needs of the developing world through the lens of income classification. They focus on the “global priority group,” which includes vulnerable seniors older than 60 and those in the medical profession, and thus combine notions of intrinsic and extrinsic vulnerability (age and exposure). The measure could be widened by including comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension that are prevalent in developing countries too. They could also control for R, though limited testing and the likelihood of new variants would pose a challenge. The advantage of our approach is that the data are comprehensively available.

Figure 1 then shows the disconnect between vaccine distribution and global needs. High-income countries account for 51 percent of doses administered globally—almost twice their share in the global priority group. Developing countries account for 71 percent of the global priority group but have administered 49 percent of vaccines. The contrasts are greater for lower-income countries. Demography drives some of these results. Developing countries are younger on average, but they count more seniors because their populations are collectively much larger.

Figure 2 shows the unequal capacities to protect the priority group across the income classification. It measures whether countries can theoretically cover the priority group given the single doses administered thus far, with full coverage at 200 percent. The inequality is huge: High-income countries have had capacity to inoculate 95 percent of the priority group with a single shot; in the developing world, that share is just 39 percent. Even starker, within the developing world, upper-middle-income countries have covered 44 percent, whereas low-income countries only 2 percent.

Don’t penalize developing countries for a ‘less visible’ pandemic

One possible argument to justify the inequality in vaccine distribution is that “COVID-19 is a rich-country disease, so rich countries deserve vaccination priority.” We would respond that developing countries should not be penalized for their pandemic being “less visible” with population size diluting impact and data quality obfuscating it. The levels and dynamics of reported mortality rates indeed vary considerably across income groups (Figure 2). The usual pattern of death from infectious disease seems to have reversed, with high-income countries hit the hardest. But this does not diminish the fact that just over 50 percent of all fatalities have occurred in the developing world (Figure 3). Because fatalities are spread over a larger population base, the reported intensity is diluted. But a life lost is a life lost. At a minimum, equal moral concern should apply; more appropriately, the disadvantaged should receive priority.

The idea that the pandemic has passed the developing world, including the poorest countries, is a myth reliant on poor data. The reported data underestimate reality by a vast margin. Demography alone suggests the developing country share in the global death toll should hover around 70 percent, not 50 percent. All countries struggle with data quality, but more limited testing and weaker vital registration systems compound the challenges in the developing world. Just 1 in 4 deaths from malaria are detected globally; in some low-income settings, it can be 1 in 20. Unsurprisingly, a recent post-mortem surveillance study in Zambia found that, among the deceased in a major morgue, 1 in 5 tested positive, even though none did so antemortem. When it comes to new variants and “new new variants,” let’s also not forget that we may all be vulnerable and in need of protection.

Prioritize the global priority group, worry about universal coverage later

A second misconception relates to vaccine equity itself. Vaccine equity is desirable on account of basic notions of morality. Many have also appealed to externality arguments: Vaccine equity helps dampen international transmission and muzzle new variants. It is therefore in everybody’s interest. After all, the pandemic isn’t over until it’s over everywhere.

But universal or quasi-universal coverage to reach global herd immunity should not be equated with vaccine equity. Global herd immunity as a final outcome may be compatible with vaccine equity if everyone is equally protected relative to their need. But we should also practice vaccine equity along the trajectory toward global herd immunity.

An appeal to externality arguments (namely, infection risk) may incentivize people to practice greater solidarity across borders. But even with the support of enlightened self-interest, we should still make sure that the global priority group gets vaccinated first. Elderly diabetics in developing countries deserve priority over healthy youngsters in high-income countries. The alternative scenario where we sequence herd immunity across the income ladder would result in countless deaths globally.

In practice, this means that we should fill the gaps in Figure 5 as a matter of first priority (see pandem-ic.com for a dynamic visualization). The figure shows where we stand on vaccine equity with respect to the global priority group, by country and income classification. The vertical axis shows the intensive margin of vaccine equity: the capacity of countries to fully cover the priority group of elderly and medical personnel with single doses, with full coverage at 200 percent (technical details are available here). The circular axis shows the extensive margin: the participation of countries in the vaccination process. As the predominantly blank chart shows, much progress is needed in both dimensions. But it is not a Utopian ideal—it is well within our collective reach.

Connect vaccine equity to a broader development agenda

A final misconception relates to vaccine equity more broadly. It is worth remembering the world’s performance against the Millennium Development Goals. We met the goal of reducing income poverty five years ahead of time. But the progress on all other goals—the non-income dimensions of development including health, education, sanitation, and others—were much more incomplete and heterogeneous. These dimensions represented the persistent development bottlenecks that left countries behind and motivated the broader 2030 agenda

For at least three reasons, the call for #VaccinEquity needs to be connected to this broader development agenda. First, because fixing vaccine hoarding in rich countries and distributing them more equitably across countries will not be sufficient to fix vaccine inequity on its own. Inequities and deficiencies across the broader supply chain across and within borders need to be considered. Second, the vaccine equity movement must call attention to and extend greater solidarity with other inequities in global health and development. Third, since pandemics are likely to occur again, we must seize the opportunity to break the cycle of panic and neglect and scale up pandemic preparedness.

      
Kategorien: english

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